VAN-VASPURAKAN DURING WORLD WAR I (Summer of 1915-1917)
After the retreat of July 1915 some Armenians of Vaspurakan returned again to restore their fathernal hearths. There was no longer an Armenian authority both in Van and in the province. The internal life of Van was a little bit regulated.
In spite of many difficulties the life was getting back on its track gradually. The merchants started to make relations with Persia and the Caucasus. A group of people from Van founded a corporative company “Van”, which had to provide the population of the city with agricultural products.
The activities of reconstructing Van-Vaspurakan were continued in 1917. However, after the military units of the Caucasian Army left the Russian-Turkish front on February 1918, the Ottoman troops began a large-scale attack. In March, the Armenians of Van and the province were compelled to retreat into Eastern Armenia and Persia. There, they continued to fight against Turkish invaders.
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THE REPATRIATION TO ARMENIA AND THE PEOPLE’S HISTORICAL MEMORY (According to the personal ethnographic observations)
After the Armenian Genocide part of the Western Armenians, who were dispersed all over the world periodically repatriated to Armenia (1920-1930s, 1946-1948, 1962-1965, and later).
The repatriates came to the Motherland, Armenia, to put hand in hand with their sisters and brothers in the homeland, a soothing balm over the bloody wounds of the Motherland caused by the Second World War. For that noble purpose, the workers were bringing the force of their arms; the craftsmen, the skill of their hands; the intellectuals, their knowledge; the rich, their belongings and factories; the parents, their children.
In spite of the political, domestic and moral-psychological difficulties prevailing in the country, however, a great number of repatriates settled down, taking advantage of the opportunity to receive free education in the Motherland, to creative work.
We have started to write down folklore materials and chronicle-documentary testimonies of historical memory from the repatriates living in the Motherland as early as 1955 on our own initiative and by the call of our Western-Armenian blood. We have recorded, during 60 years, the relics of the popular oral tradition communicated by the representatives of the various age and sex groups.
Thus, the new social quality of the repatriates living in Armenia, their spiritual-conscious inner world and mentality were gradually shaped in the crucible of the higher professional education received in the Motherland, the increasing scientific-technical information and the public production relations. Their cultural development and their ability to public adaptation, proceeding in the direction of approach, constitutes a component of the national identity and the consolidation of the Armenian nation.
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THE PROSPECTS OF THE GENERATION CHANGES IN THE DIASPORA IN THE CONTEXT OF STRATEGIC INTERESTS OF ARMENIA. “PRESERVING ARMENIANNESS” WITHOUT “LAND-PRESERVATION” IS MEANINGLESS
The ideas of preserving Homeland and Armenianness have different perception and demonstration in the Armenian Diaspora. The explanation to these is the changeable attitude of the Armenian political parties towards Motherland, as well as the changes of generations that are taking place in the Diaspora through decades. As a result, the ideas of Motherland and nationality have undergone transformation.
Within a century (from the beginning of the 20th century to the beginning of the 21st century) the previous perception of political-strategic interests of Armenia in the Diaspora has been gradually replaced with the priority of globalization аnd even with the superiority of strategic interests of countries, where the Diaspora Armenians dwell. Generally these interests contradict to the interests of Armenia and partner countries.
It is high time for the Diaspora Armenians to undertake realistic and practical activities directed to the preserving of the national entity and consolidation in Homeland, because the interests of Motherland come first.
- preserving Armenianness
- strategical investments
- USA Armenian Community
- Middle East
- mixed marriages
- generation change
- voluntary movement
- Monte Melkonian
- Garo Kahkejian
- Shahé Ajemian
- Garnik Svazlian
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THE FORMATION OF THE ARMENIAN AMIRA CLASS OF CONSTANTINOPLE
A new class of Armenian elite came out in Constantinople Armenian millet in the middle of the XVIII century as a result of social and economic changes which took place in the Ottoman Empire. The new elite also adopted a new name or a title - amiras. The problem of the elite formation was first viewed by H. G. Mrmryan, who studying the Armenian sources and finding no information about it called the problem “a Gordius’ knot”. The reason for the mystery is the fact that the scholars were looking for its reasons in the Armenian reality, while we think the problem should be considered on the basis of social changes which took place at the time in the Ottoman Empire, since those processes, though in small, were revealed in the Armenian colony, too. Of course the Armenians being under Muslim rule could not have the same privileges as the Muslims, but the subject of our study concerns not the whole community, but its elite, who for some social economic reasons were able to get some prerogatives. The amiras took themselves that title, because during the developed feudalism the Armenian metropolitan noblemen called themselves like that (amira kaxaki ["amira of the town"]). And since most of the amiras from Akn considered themselves as migrated from Ani and Vaspurakan, we can suppose that the use of this title comes from there. Thus, the formation of the amira class was the consequence of phenomena taking place in the Ottoman Empire of the time. It took place in the same way as in the Empire, that is a new class of metropolitan authority (ayans) rose and replaced the old elite. The processes began in the middle of the XVIII century and the first man called amira is Petros amira Aleksanyan from Akn
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THE EFFORTS OF THE ARMENIAN BENEVOLENT SOCIETY OF THE CAUCASUS IN HELPING THE ARMENIAN REFUGEES (1896)
Some of the Western Armenians who had miraculously survived the massacres, organized by Abdul Hamid II, were forced to take the route of emigration. The refugees, having been deprived even of the basic means of livelihood, were in a difficult socio-economic situation. Various illnesses were disseminated among them because of lack of food and living conditions. A necessity of taking urgent measures to provide both material and moral support to Western Armenians was taking shape under these circumstances.
The Armenians of Diaspora, Eastern Armenians and Russian progressive society came to help refugees. Different charitable, social and religious organizations and companies were created.
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BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS THE ARMENIAN QUESTION FROM THE ARMISTICE OF MUDROS TO THE OPENING OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE
On October 30, 1918, the Ottoman Empire signed an armistice in the town of Mudros of the Greek island of Lemnos, thus effectively ending the hostilities with the Allies. The armistice was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS Agamemnon in the harbor of Mudros. The terms of the Armistice of Mudros were already to a great extent a setback for the just settlement of the Armenian Question as stipulated by British and other Allied leaders during the war. The British Foreign Office, after three weeks from the Armistice of Mudros, on November 21, 1918, had prepared a memorandum which outlined the borders of the independent Armenia which included most of its historic territory. However, the British were never prepared to make an actual commitment (military and otherwise) to one of their supposed war aims, of holding the Turkish government accountable for what it had done to the Armenians and granting the latter their promised independence based upon the principle of self-determination. The fact that Western Armenia was not occupied by the Allies turned out to be fatal for the Armenian survivors who during the war already had experienced a horrific genocide at the hands of the Turkish government. The armed Turkish regular and irregular formations throughout the Armenian provinces according to the terms of the Armistice of Mudros were to be disarmed. However, this task was not taken up by the Allies, and was left up to the Turkish government officials. Many of these officials simply paid lip service to this Allied demand and did very little, if anything, in carrying out these orders. By mid-1919, a “new” Turkish nationalist movement headed by “former” Young Turk leader Mustafa Kemal who hailed from the ranks of the C.U.P. that committed the Armenian Genocide, already begun to plan its course of action against the fledgling Armenian state. As Oliver Baldwin, the son of Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, who served as an infantry instructor in the Republic of Armenia and remained committed to the Armenian cause for many years after its “betrayal” and occupation, noted that for the British political elite and other Allied leaders “Armenia had served her purpose…that was all that was needed”.
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ABOUT THE HISTORICAL SOURCES OF MOVSES KHORENATSI’S HISTORY
In Armenological studies, both in Armenia and in abroad the history of the establishment of the Arshakid dynasty has been presented thoroughly. In this context the accession of Tiridates I, first Armenian Arshakid king, is elucidated in its full length due to detailed description of confrontation between the Parthian empire and Rome by Roman historians Tacitus and Dio Cassius, especially the journey to Rome where he received his crown from emperor Nero.
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Foreign Sources and Authors About Armenia and Armenians1
XIV.- JOURNEY THROUGH A PART OF ARMENIA AND ASIA MINOR, IN THE YEAR 1835. COMMUNICATED BY JAMES BRANT, ESQ. HIS MAJESTY’S CONSUL AT ERZ-RÚM. JULY, 1836.
James Brant was British Consul first in Trebizond (1836-1840), then in Erzerum (1840-1846) and Damascus (1855 onwards). His "Journey Through a Part of Armenia and Asia Minor, in the Year 1835" (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 6 (1836), pp. 187-223) and "Notes of a Journey through a part of Kurdistan, in the Summer of 1838" (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 10 (1840), pp. 341-434)[in the second journey accompanied by A.G. Glascott - British Royal Navy] are the records of lengthy travels through Western Armenia.
The studies of J. Brant are extremely useful source for the geography, climate, demography and related aspects of Western Armenia. They also discuss interethnic relations between Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish populations, the attitude of the Ottoman government and local administration towards eastern multiethnic regions.
During his journeys J. Brant meets Ottoman officials, Kurdish tribesmen and Armenians of different social affiliation. The report is a highly important source for the history of this part of the Ottoman empire, i.e. Western Armenia, particularly its Armenian population.
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Political Sciences and Informational Security2
THE ARMENIAN CIVILIZATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE LENS OF HUNTINGTON’S HYPOTHESIS (An Examination Outline of the Concept)
The formation of a new world order and the ongoing processes within that context in different parts of the world became a subject of analyses for various authoritative scientists in the field of strategic studies (geopolitics), and in parallel with that different projects of the future were proposed. One of those is Huntington’s hypothesis of the “clash of civilizations”, which, we’ll note that became a catalyst for the strategic way of thinking of the late 20th century and of nowadays due to the novelty in formulation of the questions and often admittedly, with originality of the solutions. From that perspective, the observations concerning Armenia and the Armenian people of the author of the concept Samuel Huntington (within that framework the logic of the ongoing discussions over the Artsakh (Nagorno Karabakh) issue) are of certain interest.
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ON THE DEVELOPMENTS OF THE KURDISH QUESTION IN THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST IN MODERN TIMES
The “Kurdish Question” was for the first time a matter of discussions in international instances in 1919, in Paris peace conference. But in international legal practice this question was for the first time formulated in the form of a contract on August 10, 1920, in the Treaty of Sevres, which was guaranteeing a right to autonomy in Turkey for the Kurds. This autonomous formation could be turned into a sovereign state with the consent of the League of Nations after a year. But, as is known, the Treaty of Lausanne, signed in 1923, denounced the Treaty of Sevre, thus pushing the “Kurdish Question” into noneexistence. In the final stage of the WW II the “Kurdish Question” ascended again on the surface of political realities, this time by the leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. The latter raised a number of issues simultaneously just after the war, which were tended to change the correlation of powers in the Near and Middle East in favor of the Soviet Union. The Great Powers and Iran, Turkey, Syria and Iraq do not show any interest on resolving the “Kurdish Question”. All this provides a ground to conclude that the creation of the Kurdish state is impossible in the visible future. On the other hand, it is reality that the “Kurdish Question” is being gradually subjected to internationalization, becoming a more serious problem in relations of the USA, European Union, Russian Federation, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria and other countries. Decidedly, the Kurds are become serious regional players on the background of events, evolving in the Near and Middle East in recent years. One can even say that they are key players in the Near Eastern policy. It is beyond doubt that the absence of the statehood always helps the Kurds to operate out of the existing legal relations. This fact as well as the fighting efficiency of the Kurds make them one of the most important players of the present-day Near East.
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CONTRADICTIONS AND ERRORS IN THE PREFACE AND NOTES OF NIZAMI’S WORKS COLLECTION IN FIVE VOLUMES
In 1985 and 1986 the Moscow-based publishing house «Khudozhestvennaya literatura» had published a collection of works of the great Persian poet Nizami in five volumes. On the title pages of all volumes is written «translated from Pharsi». The preface of the first volume begins as «Nizami Gyandjevi, the glory and pride of Azerbaidjani people belongs to the giants of world literature, whose creativity is written in golden letters in the history of literary thought of mankind». Probably, in order to justify this falsification the Persian poet Nizami was made Azerbaidjani, the genius thinker of other people was given to the nomads who came from northern China, who had been established in this region only in the XI century and did not created their own script and literature. Although literary studies does not belong to exact sciences, anyway it could be regarded as a science if the facts are not falsified and conclusions are exclusively based on prooved information. And the facts proove that Nizami was a Persian poet, and ascription of the genius of one people to another is unacceptable.
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Documents: Armenian Genocide3
THE WAR OF TURKEY AGAINST ARMENIA: ANALYZING THE TURKISH DOCUMENTS (NOVEMBER 1920)
The November of 1920 was fateful for the Republic of Armenia. The Turkish army captured Kars on 30 October, predetermining the military defeat of the Armenian side in the Armenian-Turkish war. The gravity of the struggle was transferred into the diplomatic sphere. A treaty was sighned with Turkey on December 2 in Alexandrapol after intensive and multilateral negotiations of about one month, which ratified the results of both the military and diplomatic defeat of Armenia.
The native historical science, dragging new archival and other documentary materials of a considerable quantity, laid a serious basis for comprehensive and impartial study of this tragic page of our modern history.
Nevertheless, the Turkish documents remain for the most part still unreachable to us. The present publication is the first step on the way to filling this gap.
A number of important documents dated with November 1920 are presented in translation, annotated in detail and analyzed as well. These are fragments of encrypted writing between the heads of the Turkish state and military highest organs, the Head of General Staff of the Armed Forces and then the commander of the Western front Ismet (Inonu), acting Foreign Minister Ahmed Muhtar (Mollahoğlu) and the commander of the Eastern front, Kâzim Karabekir, as well as documents, reflecting the guiding role of Mustafa Kemal, the Speaker of the Turkish National Grand Assembly (TBMM). The secret letters of the two conflicting heads of the Turkish Communist Party (TCP) operating in Baku, addressed to Kemal and Karabekir are involved as well. In fact, the authors of the said letters were acting as agents of nationalistic forces.
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THE MURDEROUS TYRANNY OF THE TURKS (BY ARNOLD J. TOYNBEE WITH A PREFACE BY VISCOUNT BRYCE, 1917)
LETTERS FROM THE SCENES OF THE RECENT MASSACRES IN ARMENIA (J. RENDEL HARRIS AND HELLEN B. HARRIS, LONDON 1897)
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“I PROMISED I WOULD TELL” (TRANSL. FROM ENGLISH INTO ARMENIAN BY AELITA DOLUKHANYAN), YEREVAN, 2017: ZANGAK PUBLISHING HOUSE, 156 P. (IN ARM.)
A book review by Dolukhanyan Aelita
Sonia Weitz’s book “I Promised I Would Tell” is a documentary of her experiences. Sonia tells it like it was, without exaggeration and hyperbole, and it is the power of this documentary approach that communicates the enormity of the inhumanity, calamity and devastation brought on by the Holocaust. At the same time, Sonia Weitz’s book communicates hope by showing the power of the human spirit to survive, to see the beauty of life. Sonia Weitz also condemns bigotry and racism. Reading this book will help humanity become better by learning from the mistakes of the past, and live up to the divine mandates of doing good and rejecting evil.
In the preface to her book, Sonia Weitz refers to the “Armenian Genocide” as historically forgotten. As Hitler famously said in 1939, “Who, after all, speaks today of the annihilation of the Armenians?" And we all know that what followed the “historically forgotten” Armenian Genocide, as Sonia Weitz characterized it, is the unspeakable horror of the Holocaust.
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«THE HISTORY OF ARMENIAN PERIODICAL PRESS» (I VOLUME, XVIII- XIX CENTURIES, 2006, P. 701), (II VOLUME, 1900-1922, 2017, 787 P.), YEREVAN, (IN ARM.)
A book review by Petrosyan David
In 2006, the first volume of «The History of Armenian Periodical Press» (XVIII- XIX centuries) was published in Cairo owing to the joint efforts of the Armenian press historians. The most popular periodicals of the mentioned period of Armenian journalism have been studied and valued through the method of historical investigation.
The authors of this difficult but very grateful work recorded the next significant achievement with the initiative of the Department of History of Public and Political Thought of the Armenian Periodical Press, Institute of History NAS RA (Head of Department - Corresponding Member of NAS RA, Albert Kharatyan): recently the second volume of «The History of Armenian Periodical Press» (1900-1922) was published.
WESTERN ARMENIANS ON THE TARGET OF THE INTELLIGENCE OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE (1878-1923), YEREVAN, NATIONAL SECURITY SERVICE OF RA, YEREVAN, 2016, 275 P. (IN ARM.)
A book review by Ruben Sahakyan
In the memoirs, studies, archival and other documents dealing with the struggle of Armenian national-liberatory movement against the Ottoman tyranny are referred to considerable number of examples regarding the activities of the Turkish intelligence, which were aimed to jeopardize the undertakings of Armenian organizations. The study of Hakob Hatikyan discusses this problem from the time span between the beginning of the Armenian Question unti the creation of the Turkish republic. H. Hatikyan stresses that the modern «Turkish National Intelligence Service» (“Milli Istihbarat Teşkilatı”) is a direct heir of the two Ottoman special services - “Yıldız Istihbarat Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa” and “Teşkilat-ı Mahsusa”. It is also well known that the World War I became a fine opportunity for the Young Turk Ottoman government to fulfill its program of the Armenian genocide. In this undertaking an important role was played by the “Special organization” whose first victims were Russian Armenians living in the districts of Kars and Batumi (November-December 1914). The Ottoman intelligence which had established contacts with Russian Bolsheviks, in 1918-1922 constantly receives information from them and even supplies the Muslim bands acting against the Republic of Armenia with arms. After World War I ARF had succeeded to secretly organize the operation “Nemesis”. Turkish intelligence was unaware of it and could not warn the leaders of the Young Turks who had escaped to Europe and other countries.
H. Hatikyan discusses the activities of the Armenian intelligence and counterintelligence of the First Republic and also the Armenian-Kurdish cooperation against the Kemalist Turkey.
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THE PROBLEM OF ARMENIAN ORIGINS. MYTH, HISTORY, HYPOTHESES, INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY, NAS RA, YEREVAN: “ANTARES PUBLISHING HOUSE”, 2017, 248 P. (IN ARM.)
A book review by Kosyan Aram
The recent study by Armen Petrosyan is the last one among his numerous studies, which were devoted to the Pre-History of Armenian people. As the author mentions in the Introduction, his goal was to summarize all that was achieved by Armenology during the last century and up to date. The study is built on the analysis of several interconnected levels - biological, cultural, linguistic, religious-mythological, and historical. It consists of four chapters, where the reader finds the analysis of main problems of early Armenian ethnogenesis and statehood.
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GRIGOR KAPANTSYAN AND THE HITTITE STUDIES, YEREVAN, “GITUTYUN” PUBLISHING HOUSE, 2016, 196 P. (IN ARM.)
A book review by Robert Ghazaryan
In the field of the study of Hittite-Armenian linguistic interrelations the works by Hasmik Hmayakyan, senior researcher of the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS RA, have their unique place as well, especially her monograph “Grigor Kapantsyan and the Hittite Studies”. The topic “Grigor Kapantsyan and the Hittite Studies” is being introduced in the scientific circulation for the first time and this is its novelty. Some aspects of Grigor Kapantsyan’s studies (history, linguistics and mythology) reviewed in this monograph as well as some of his suggestions have been introduced by various researchers in their papers, depending on to what extent these suggestions concerned their subject of studies and opinions expressed. However, this is the first time that such a holistic, generalizing approach simultaneously with a number of queries shaped by the author around these aspects of the scholar’s studies that are introduced, discussed and valued in the context of the achievement of the modern science, is being applied.
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ORIENTAL STUDIES IN ARMENIA. VOL. I-III, YEREVAN, 2015-2017 (IN ARM.)
(Oriental Studies in Armenia. Vol. I. Topical Issues of Iranian Studies (The Collection of papers in honor of Prof. Dr. Vahan Bayburdyan on the occasion of his 80th birthday) (ed. Ruben Safrastyan), Yerevan, “Gitutyun” publishing house of NAS RA, 2015, 119 p.
Oriental Studies in Armenia. Vol. II. Current problems of Arabic Studies (The Collection of papers in honor of Prof. Dr., Corresponding Member of NAS RA Nikolay Hovhannisyan on the occasion of his 85th birthday) (ed. Ruben Safrastyan), Yerevan, “Gitutyun” publishing house of NAS RA, 2017, 199 p.
Oriental Studies in Armenia. Vol. III. Ancient and Medieval Armenia and its neighbors (The Collection of papers in honor of the Member of NAS RA Gagik Sargsyan on the occasion of his 90th birthday) (ed. Aram Kosyan), Yerevan, “Gitutyun” publishing house of NAS RA, 2017, 215 p.)
In 2015 the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS RA initiated the publication of a series of collections dedicated to the researchers of the Institute who had a great contribution to the development of Oriental studies in Armenia.
The first volume is dedicated to Prof., Dr. Vahan Bayburdyan, head of the department of Iran of the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS RA. The collection includes the materials of the scientific conference “Topical Issues of Iranian Studies” held at the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS RA on April 16, 2014. The first part of the volume contains the biography of Vahan Bayburdyan, outstanding Iranologist and diplomat, his scientific activities, and articles about him, as well as the bibliography of his published works. The second part of the collection includes articles covering the ancient, new and modern history of Iran, the Persian documents of the Matenadaran and regional issues.
The second volume is dedicated to corresponding member of NAS RA Nikolay Hovhannisyan, head of the department of International Relations of the Institute of Oriental Studies, NAS RA. The collection includes the materials of the scientific conference “Current Problems of Arabic Studies” held at the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS RA on October 29-30, 2015. The collection presents the bibliography of outstanding Arabist Nikolay Hovhannisyan's monographs, his scientific degrees, titles and rewards. The second part presents also the articles of the conference dedicated to Nikolay Hovhannisyan’s scientific activities and problems of Arabic studies.
The third volume is dedicated to the long-time director of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Member of NAS RA Gagik Sargsyan. The collection includes the materials of the scientific conference “Ancient and Medieval Armenia and its Neighbors” held at the Institute of Oriental Studies of NAS RA on May 19, 2016. The beginning of the collection presents articles dedicated to intellectual and scientist Gagik Sargsyan, his scientific activity and merit, as well as the list of his works. The collection includes articles covering the problems of ancient and medieval history of Armenia and its neighboring countries and peoples.
KHOR VIRAP. HISTORY, MANUSCRIPT AND EPIGRAPHIC HERITAGE, YEREVAN, INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY OF NAS RA AND “MATENADARAN” MASHTOTS INSTITUTE OF ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS: “TIGRAN METS PUBLISHING HOUSE”, 2017, 192 P. + 72 PHOTOS. (IN ARM.)
The monograph presents a complete history of Khor Virap, the prominent sanctuary of Armenian Christianity since its beginning. In the study all manuscripts and references, as well as monumental inscriptions concerning Khor Virap are collected, which serve as sources for its history from the VII century onwards. From about 70 monumental inscriptions until now only 16 were published.
The study is supplied with indices (personal names, toponyms etc.).
ESTABLISHMENT OF ONE-PARTY REGIME IN SOVIET ARMENIA (1920'S), YEREVAN, 2016: INSTITUTE OF HISTORY, NAS RA, 366 P. (IN ARM.)
The monograph is focused on the study of the establishment of one-party governance system in Armenia during the sovietisation and following years (1920's). Here several key-aspects of this process are presented - the character and structure of the Soviet Armenian state, voting system, establishment of party nomenclature, discussions and confrontation between different wings of the communist party and their peculiarities in Armenia, etc.
ECONOMIC SITUATION AND MATERIAL LOSSES OF THE ARMENIANS OF BURSA DURING THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE, GITUTYUN PUBLISHING HOUSE, NAS RA, 2017, 320 P., 40 PHOTOS. (IN ARM.)
The monograph presents the study of A. Astoyan, senior researcher of Matenadaran, which deals with the economic situation and prominent role of the Armenian population of the province of Bursa prior to World War I. The sources for this study are archival materials kept in Matenadaran, publications of Armenian press (newspapers and magazines), Turkish and European sources as well.
The author discusses also the material losses of the Armenian population suffered during the Armenian genocide - houses, real estates, economic and other facilities (factories, hotels, mines etc.).
The study is supplied with solid archival materials which gives sufficient information for the calculation of material losses of Armenian population.
CILICIAN ARMENIA AND THE AYYUBID STATES (1171-1260), YEREVAN, “TIR PUBLISHING HOUSE”, 266 P. (IN ARM.)
The monograph is dedicated to the relations of Cilician Armenian kingdom with the Ayyubid states and covers a period from the establishment of the new Sultanate in Egypt by Salah ad-Din (1171) until the downfall of the Ayyubid kingdom in Syria (1260). The author especially focuses on the foreign policy of the Cilician kingdom in regard to Ayyubid states of Northern Syria and Jazirah.
CATALOGUE OF THE PERSIAN MANUSCRIPT FRAGMENTS OF MATENADARAN (EDITOR GOHAR MURADYAN), NAIRI PUBLISHING HOUSE, YEREVAN, 2017, 86 P.
The volume includes all fragments of Persian manuscripts kept at Matenadaran. The list includes, besides fragments of manuscripts, also personal letters and calligraphic samples. Every fragment is supplied with description (date, number of pages and lines, material, state of preservation) and content, some are published with translation.
ARMENIANS IN CHINA. ARMENIAN-CHINESE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL RELATIONS, YEREVAN, 2017: INSTITUTE OF HISTORY OF NAS RA, 358 P. (IN ARM.)
ARMENIAN-JAPANESE HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELATIONS, YEREVAN, 2017: INSTITUTE OF HISTORY OF NAS RA, 286 P. (IN ARM.)
ARMENIAN-GEORGIAN RELATIONS IN 1918-1919 (LETTERS, REPORTS), YEREVAN, 2017: INSTITUTE OF HISTORY OF NAS RA, 153 P. (HAMO SUKIASYAN) (IN ARM.)
The publication includes the letters and reports of Martiros Harutyunyan, an outstanding Armenian political figure, who headed the Armenian delegation in the 1919 Tbilisi peacemaking conference. The letters (about 30) are dealing with the efforts to stabilize the relations between Armenia and Georgia during 1918-1919.
ARMENIAN POPULATION OF THE KHARBERD VILAYET OF WESTERN ARMENIA IN THE LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES (HISTORICAL-DEMOGRAPHIC STUDY), YEREVAN, 2017: INSTITUTE OF HISTORY, NAS RA, 283 P. (IN ARM.)
In the monograph several aspects of the history of Kharberd region in the late XIX - early centuries are discussed - estimates of Armenian population, their impact on the economic life of the area, tendencies in the demographic developments, especially the emigration to the USA. The author makes an attempt to study the number of the Armenian population of Kharberd vilayet.
ARMENIAN EMIGRATION. A HISTORY OF THE TERMS, YEREVAN, 2017: “COLLAGE PUBLISHING HOUSE”, 188 P. (IN ARM.)
The monograph of the renowned specialist in Armenian Diaspora presents a unique study dealing with terminology used in scientific, political and other literature in regard to the tragic period of Armenian history.
In four chapters of the monograph ("Emigration from the Motherland", "Immigration to Motherland", "Migration as a social phenomena", "Diaspora") the author discusses the origins of various terms, their transformations during the last century. He stresses the necessity of the unification of terminology since different authors treat one and the same term according to their approach to the topic.
The monograph of Ed. Melkonyan is a study which definitely could further our knowledge of the migratory processes, especially in regard to the modern Armenian history.
PAVEL AVETISYAN: ON THE OCCASION OF HIS SIXTIETH ANNIVERSARY
Pavel Avetisyan, a modern leading Armenian archaeologist, a specialist with wide international acknowledgment, was born in Tbilisi, but spent his childhood and youth in Talin, Aragatsotn Region, Republic of Armenia - one of the first shelters of the Armenian refugees from Mush.
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