TESTIMONIES OF THE EYEWITNESS SURVIVORS AS HISTORICAL IRREFUTABLE DOCUMENTS OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
The Armenian Genocide - the crime against humanity, has become, by the brutal constraint of history, an inseparable part of the national identity, the thought and the spiritual-conscious inner world of the Armenian people. As the years go by, interest toward the Armenian Genocide grows steadily due also to the fact of the recent recognition of this historical evidence by numerous countries. However, the official Turkish and the pro-Turkish historiographers try, up to the present day and in every possible way, to distort the true historical facts pertaining to the years 1915-1923.
Numerous studies, collections of documents, statements of politicians and public officials, artistic creations of various genres about the Armenian Genocide have been published in various languages, but all these colossal publications did not include the voice of the people: the memoirs and popular songs narrated and transmitted by eyewitness survivors who had created them under the immediate impression of the said historical events. These memoirs and songs also have an important historical-cognitive, factual-documental and primary source value.
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THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE AND HENRY MORGENTHAU
The first quarter of the 20th century was particularly tragic for the Armenian people. The Genocide of the Armenian people in the Ottoman Empire and in Western Armenia at the beginning of the 20th century was the first greatest tragedy of mankind.
The U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire Henry Morgenthau in his work “Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story” writes about the Genocide, severe murders, torture and deportation of the Armenians. Morgenthau mentions that it was only the small part of what the Armenian people underwent. In 29 chapters of his book the diplomat analyzed deeply the bloody events referring to the official sources and their analyses.
Henri Morgenthau’s testimonies are undeniable proofs of the Armenian Genocide and confirm the fact of the planned slaughter by the Turkish government.
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THE CONCEPTION OF C. F. LEHMAN-HAUPT ON THE FORMATION OF THE KINGDOM OF VAN
The first cuneiform inscription in Assyrian about the construction activities in the city of Van belongs to the king of the kingdom of Van, Sarduri. Based on the present inscription, some of the researchers considered him the founder of the capital city Tushpa-Van, as well as the one (separated from the royal dynasty of Arame) who founded both new capital and royal dynasty . If, formerly, the period of Sarduri’s reign was indubitably dated after Arame, circa 845-825 BC, now the researchers are not of the same view concerning the circumstances and period of both Arame and Sarduri’s reign and, consequently, the matter of dating the events of the early period of the land of Biaina. The first to offer his own hypotheses in the historiography on the abovementioned tangle was prominent German Armenologist, orientalist K. F. Lehman-Haupt.
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TURKEY IN THE PERIOD OF NEO-OTTOMANISM OF ERDOĞAN: THE ADVENTUROUS FOREIGN POLICY AND THE INSOLENT DENIALASIM
A number of conceptual approaches make up the basis of this article. The most important of those is the following: the foreign policy of Turkey obtained a “new quality” during the rule of the “Justice and Development Party” (JDP), since 2002, which could be characterized as adventurism. It stems from the baseless extreme imaginations of the JDP leader, the prime minister of the country, and, subsequently, the president R. T. Erdoğan about the foreign political potentialities of Turkey, which implied, and that was his intention, insurance for the dominant role of Turkey in the surrounding region, particularly in the Near East. In fact, Turkey has neither the necessary potential nor authority to reach this goal. In reality, the active involvement of Turkey in the Syrian crisis and the large scale support of anti-governmental forces there (including such an extremist and genocidal organization as the Islamic state) are conditioned by an objective very far from that reality. This “Erdoğanist” or adventurist tendency of Turkey’s regional policy is being expressed from time to time in the Transcaucasus policy, too, which constitutes a menace particularly for Armenia.
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THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE: THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND CURRENT PROCESS OF INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION AND CONDEMNATION
The historical facts spread light on the actual reasons of the Armenian Genocide and its pre-planned nature which has so far been and is still being officially rejected by the Turkish authorities of today.
The Armenian Genocide – extermination of the Armenian nation in its Motherland (Western Armenia and Cilicia) is the most horrific act in the history of humanity.
The existence of independent Armenian statehood and its activities in foreign policy along with the organizational activities of Hay Dat (the Armenian Cause) have had a paramount importance in international recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide.
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CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES AND PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE MEDIEVAL ARMENIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY
The problems of medieval historiography, have usually been restricted to recounting or simply to presenting the Medieval culture. In general studies of this kind the main attention is focused on characterizing specific historians’ works, rather than on historiographic features of historical periods.
The problem of periodic classification of the Medieval Armenian history writing has become a starting point for putting forward some new issues of theoretical nature as well as for making generalizations.
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THE HISTORY OF SEVERAL CITIES OF THE WESTERN PART OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLAND ACCORDING TO HITTITE SOURCES
From ancient times the peoples and states of the Armenian Highland and Asia Minor were in cultural and political relations with one another. With the emergence of the Hittite state (18th-13th centuries BC) those relations became more active. The Hittite state took under its control the western parts of the Armenian Highland as well and tried to have more influence in the east. Geographically several Hittite lands were in the contact zone between the Armenian Highland and Asia Minor. In this contact zone there were also several cities that played a significant role in the political, cultural and economic life of the region. Those cities were Sarissa, Kussara, Samuha and Mal(i)tiya.
The Upper Euphrates and Halys vallies are perfect for analyzing and understanding the nature of the contact between Asia Minor and the Armenian Highland especially during the Late Bronze and Iron Age periods. Over the centuries the region was influenced by the cultures of several Near Eastern territories, many of whose elements merged with local traditions. These lands and cities (for example Upper Land, Tegarama, Sarissa, Kussar, Samuha and Mal(i)tiya) formed a sort of cultural and political border between Hittite territories and the countries of the Armenian Highland (Hayasa, Isuwa, etc.) during the Late Bronze Age.
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HOVHANNES TER-MARTIROSSYAN (A-DO)
The Armenian intellectual and scholar A-Do (Hovhannes Ter-Martirossyan, January 4, 1867- February 7, 1954) is one of the prominent figures of Armenian life at the end of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century. He is one of those rare personalities who dedicated their entire conscious life to the scrupulous study of modern and contemporary history of the Armenian people.
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THE EPIC STRUGGLE OF MUSA LER
The heroic resistance of Musa Ler is a glorious chapter in the turbulent history of Armenia.
It proved again that the Armenian nation’s liberation was feasible through armed struggle - the only way of defending the Motherland with the unconditional right to independent existence.
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THE RELIABILITY OF THE 19th CENTURY FRENCH AND MODERN ARMENOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF THE BIBLE IMFORMATION ABOUT MT. ARARAT IN THE LIGHT OF THE QUMRAN MANUSCRIPTS
The mention of Ararat, the resting place of Noah’s Ark in the course of centuries has been at the center of attention of theologians, historians and researchers. The name Ararat is mentioned in the Hebrew original of the Bible as the mountains of Ararat, the land of Ararat and the kingdom of Ararat. The phrase the mountains of Ararat, mentioned in the Hebrew original and the Septuagint Version (the 3rd c. BC), is presented as the mountains of Armenia in the Vulgate (the end of the 4th c.-the beginning of the 5th c. AD) - montes Armeniae. The phrase of the Septuagint eij§ ta; o[re jAraravt (“into the land of Ararat”) is translated «ի լերինս Հայոց» (“into the mountains of Armenia”) in the Armenian translation (the beginning of the 5th c. AD) of the Bible.
The primary sources on Ararat as a mountain where the Ark rested have been available for the analysis of the Armenologists since the 19th century. Among important historic sources on the issue under discussion are the Qumran manuscript of the ancient Aramaic Bible translation and Eghishe’s interpretation about Ararat-Masis as the mountain where the Ark rested.
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ON THE GENETIC IDENTITY OF ARMANUM WITH ARMENIA
The earliest evidence of the toponyms of Armenia are cuneiform inscriptions dating back to the 3rd – 1st millennia BC, the most ancient of which are the Akkadian sources. They have been in the centre of the researchers’ attention studying the localizations of toponyms and ethnonyms. In this respect different opinions have been suggested in historiography concerning localization of the toponym Armanum, which concentrate around three regions: (a) in the south-west of the Armenian Highland, (b) to the west of the Euphrates and (c) in Northern Mesopotamia.
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PERSIAN AND ARABIC CALENDARS AS PRESENTED BY ANANIA SHIRAKATSI
Here is an attempt to present the ideas concerning the Medieval Persian and Arabic calendars as offered in the works of the 7th century A.D. Armenian scientist Anania Shirakatsi. The calendars of Christian Persians and Arabs, as explained in Anania’s work, are of the Julian type, with 365.25 days per year. By Persian and Arabic Calendars, he means variants of the Julian calendar used by groups of Christians living in the Persian and Arabic lands. These calendars had a structure very different from what is generally known as Arabic or Islamic and the traditional Persian calendar. Keywords: Anania Shirakatsi (Shirakouni), Armenian calendar, Persian calendar, Arabic calendar Introduction Most of the works of the 7th century.
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Historical Geography and Cartography2
The project entitled Artsakh: Atlas has been completed within a grant programme of the Youth Foundation of Armenia, a partner organization of the President of the Republic of Armenia.
The Atlas has been prepared by Duty of Soul NGO with the support of RAA Foundation
Artsakh (also known as Lesser Siunik) Province of Great Armenia (Armenia Maior) constitutes the extreme north-eastern portion of the Armenian Highland. Its northern and central districts lie in the basin of the river Kur, and southern ones in that of the Arax.
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ARMENIA: CIVILIZATIONAL VECTOR IN THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SILK ROAD
For millennia Armenia has been connected with the nearby and remote countries by trade routes, which with time formed the system of the highways of the Silk Road, from China to India – Bactria – Tokharistan – Sogdiana – Iran – Armenia – Mesopotamia – Asia Minor, the countries and cities of the Mediterranean Sea’s eastern basin (Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria, Cilicia, etc.) and Europe (Greece, Rome, etc.)
Civilizational contribution of Armenia to the history of the Silk Road in ancient and medieval times (in different geopolitical conditions) was determined by economic, state legal and cultural factors, the conclusion of international trade agreements, the high level of architecture, urban planning and craft production, developed network of trade routes, the export of raw materials and products, import of goods in the domestic market, as well as their transit to other countries, keeping and preservation of trade routes, active participation in international maritime trade and the development of commercial and financial capital, etc. In international projects devoted to the Silk Road it is necessary to present the historical and cultural heritage of Armenia in its territorial entity: Eastern Armenia – Republic of Armenia, the Artsakh (Nagorno Karabakh) Republic, Nothern Artsakh, Utik (Gardman, Gandzak, etc.), Javakhk (and neighboring regions), Nakhijevan and Paytakaran, as well as Western Armenia, including Armenia Minor, Mesopotamia and Cilician Armenia. A truly scientific approach to the history of the Silk Road in line with the dialogue of civilizations can become one of the guarantors of the security of the world civilization with its spiritual and cultural roots in Armenia
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Archaeology and Etnography1
ARMENIAN ARCHAEOASTRONOMY AND ASTRONOMY IN CULTURE
A review is given on archaeoastronomy in Armenia and astronomical knowledge reflected in the Armenian culture. Astronomy in Armenia was popular since ancient times and Armenia is rich in its astronomical heritage, such as the names of the constellations, ancient observatories, Armenian rock art (numerous petroglyphs of astronomical content), ancient and medieval Armenian calendars, astronomical terms and names used in Armenian language since II-I millennia B.C., records of astronomical events by ancient Armenians (e.g. Halley’s comet in 87 B.C., supernovae explosion in 1054), the astronomical heritage of the Armenian medieval great thinker Anania Shirakatsi’s (612-685), medieval sky maps and astronomical devices by Ghukas (Luca) Vanandetsi (XVII-XVIII centuries) and Mkhitar Sebastatsi (1676-1749), etc. For systemization and further regular studies, we have created a webpage devoted to Armenian archaeoastronomical matters at Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) website. Issues on astronomy in culture include astronomy in ancient Armenian cultures, ethnoastronomy, astronomy in Armenian religion and mythology, astronomy and astrology, astronomy in folklore and poetry, astronomy in arts, astrolinguistics and astroheraldry. A similar webpage for Astronomy in Armenian Culture is being created at ArAS website and a permanent section “Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture” has been created in ArAS Electronic Newsletter. Several meetings on this topic have been organized in Armenia during 2007- 2014, including the archaeoastronomical meetings in 2012 and 2014, and a number of books have been published. Several institutions are related to these studies coordinated by Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) and researchers from the fields of astronomy, history, archaeology, literature, linguistics, etc. are involved.
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Philosophy and Law2
THE RELATIONSHIPS OF SECULAR AND SPIRITUAL POWERS IN THE ARMENIAN KINGDOM OF CILICIA 1240’s-50’s
Hethum I (1226–1269), the King of the Cilician Armenian Kingdom is rightly considered to be unique and original among the Armenian kings. His activities were towards strengthening the Armenian statehood and spiritual power. Having been crowned at a very early age he dedicated his conscious life to the strengthening of the state and church. The change of dynasty in Cilician Armenia generally was a huge historical event.
The Ecclesiastical Assembly of Sis was held in 1243. The convocation of this assembly has a peculiar role in the histories of both Armenian Church and Armenian jurisprudence In 1246, when the delegate of the Catholicos of All Armenians Constantine Bardzraberdzi (1221‒1267) left for Great Armenia, the Pope of Rome addressed Hethum I with a special letter. Assuredly, under the existing situation, the solution of the religious problem, which was more of a political essence, should have been implemented more profoundly and providently. The result was a response letter with a truly diplomatic answer: «The Spirit emanates from God, is seen through his Son». With this answer the Armenian elite evidently declined Pope’s proffer, at the same time not opposing the latter roughly.
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CIVILIZATION’S THEORY IN GEOPOLITICAL CONCEPTIONS
The idea of the origin and development of civilization belongs to the historic categories within the scope of philosophic theories and interpretations. The entity of the spiritual-cultural, economic and political elements and the chronological sequence are characteristic for civilization. Therefore, each philosophic idea or definition concerning it, bearing the imprint of its time, has modern sounding, conditioned by cognitive
and informational comprehension. In this way, the research of the theory of civilization evaluated in two directions - scientific-cultural and, with the geopolitical purposes –in the direction of political sciences.
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Demography and Governance1
SCIENCE AND EDUCATION IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY OF INNOVATIVE POTENTIAL
Indisputably in the 20th century, now and in the future, economic development is mostly based on innovations, especially in advanced technological solutions. In this case, the assessment of the economic consequences of knowledge and education is an extremely significant and contemporary scientific issue. The latter, being a relatively new area of research is sourced from the classical works of economics (A. Smith, A. Marshall, etc.). Conceptual issues of innovative development have been considered especially in the works of J. Schumpeter. The study of the issue is important for those countries, which are on the way to improve the scientific-educational system in order to record sustainable economic growth. The Republic of Armenia (RA) is among these countries.
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Political Sciences and Informational Security2
RAPHAEL LEMKIN AND THE 1948 UN GENOCIDE CONVENTION
The paper concerns the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and largely aims at examining the lexical, semantic, stylistic and functional details of the text of the 1948 UN Convention as compared with the text of R. Lemkin’s Draft Convention on the Crime of Genocide. The texts of these two mentioned documents are treated as samples of genocide discourse, and the comparative linguistic study, ranging from general overviews and theoretical reflections to this particular case, reveals a wide scope of pragmatic and cognitive problems related to the question of linguistic expression of official censure on one of the most vicious crimes against mankind – genocide.
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THE ARMENIAN BORDER GUARDS’ HIGHLY SKILLED DEFENSIVE ACTIONS AGAINST THE AZERBAIJANI SUBVERSIVE SQUAD ON FEBRUARY 25, 2017 (the Azerbaijani subversive squad’s destruction by the border guards of the Artsakh Defense Army)
Producer Arshak Zakaryan made public the video material of the border regime violation by the Azerbaijani subversive squad and its destruction. On February 25, 2017 Armenian border guards detected an approaching Azerbaijani subversive squad moving towards our state border in the section of the Martuni region of the Artsakh Republic. The enemy’s subversive squad was totally demolished by the Artsakh Defense Army’s border guards.
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Arts and Architecture4
FOREIGN AUTHORS ABOUT THE ART OF KOMITAS AND ARMENIAN MUSIC
Komitas Vardapet (Archimandrite), starting from his academic years in Berlin, with his concert-lectures in various countries abroad, contributed to a large extent to attract the attention of famous composers and musicologists to the unknown for them Armenian medieval and folk music. After each of his concerts, in the foreign press articles full of sincere praise were published in which Komitas was praised as composer, conductor, and performer.
Komitas during his trips abroad gave numerous concerts and lectures, thanks to which he largely acquainted the international audience with Armenian music, presented the foreign listeners with wonderful moments of his art and was awarded the highest praise worthy of his genius.
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ON THE STAGING OF THE LEGEND OF “ARA THE BEAUTIFUL AND SHAMIRAM” BY CHOREOGRAPHER ASHOT ASATURYAN
Ashot Asaturyan, an outstanding choreographer and librettist, one of the pathbreakers of the Soviet ballet, who set dance symphony over against dance drama in a series of original productions in Armenia, Russia and Ukraine. The aim of the article is to present is the parameters that constitute Asaturyan’s exceptionality as a choreographer, and these parameters are best seen through the analysis of one of his best ballets – “Ara the Beautiful and Shamiram” by outstanding Armenian composer Grigor Yeghiazaryan.
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GHUKAS CHUBARYAN 1923-2009 (Compiler and editor Chubaryan A.Gh.)
Ghukas Chubaryan (1923-2009). Compiler, editor Anush Chubaryan, Erevan, 2012, 147 pages (in Armenian, English and Russian).
This album was made possible by the efforts of family of Ghukas Chubaryan: his wife, son, daughter, grandchildren, daughter-in-law, and by the great moral and financial support of Academician Yuri Oganesyan, friend, relative and admirer of Ghukas Chubaryan.
In 2003 Ghukas Chubaryan was awarded the Order of Movses Khorenatsi. His works are in collections of the Art Gallery of Armenia, the Russian Museum, Tretyakov Gallery, the Exhibition Fund of the Russian Federation and are in private collections.
Contents of the album:
Conception of “Man” in Art of Ghukas Chubaryan by Nikolay Kotanjyan (editor I.Drambyan)… 4-20
From a continuous talk with Academician Ghukas Chubaryan about monuments………….….. 21-25
From the creative experience…………………………………………………………..……….……... 26-28
Ghukas G. Chubarian, Armenian sculptor, Autobiography………………………..…….…………..29-35
Illustration list and illustrations ….…………………………………………………………....……..… 36-135
List of works …………………………………………………………………….……………......……….136-147
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“ARMENIAN ARCHITECTURE IS IN HARMONY WITH NATURE” - ALPAGO NOVELLO (Dedicated to the 85th anniversary of Italian architect, Art historian, Professor Adriano Alpago Novello)
Since 1968 Alpago Novello had been heading founded by him the Research and Documentation Center of Armenian medieval architecture, in Milan, then, with Hakob and Armen Manukyan brothers created “Documents of Armenian architecture” (“Documenti di architettura Armena”) series. The Italian architect`s “views in architecture” are very interesting. Alpago Novello`s views on medieval art are not only a historical phenomenon, but also may be interpreted in terms of the development of modern art.
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THE ARMENIAN TRANSLATION (1210 A. D.) OF THE CHRONICLE OF HUGO DE SANCTO VICTORE
We have set a research objective that can be called conditionally, "The Echoes of West-European Historiographical Thought among the Armenians" . We intend to study those large and small works, which have been translated or adapted from Latin into the Armenian language in medieval times. We plan to trace the evolution of these translations in Armenian medieval literature and the influences and changes they have undergone. After going through numerous historical-chronological primary sources in Latin and comparing them with the Armenian translation, we deduced that Hetum Sebastos (Heghi) had translated the last two sections of Hugo de Sancto Victore's Chronology, a work that had enjoyed great fame and prestige in its own time in Europe.
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TO THE PROBLEM OF CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES OF THE FRENCH ARMENOLOGISTS AND ORIENTALISTS TO THE HISTORY OF THE KINGDOM OF VAN
In the 19th century studies in the history of the Kingdom of Van had a specific course in some European countries and particularly in France within the sphere of Armenological Studies. Later, approaches to this problem underwent methodological transformation in conceptual and terminological aspects.
In terms of historical continuity of civilizational processes in the Armenian Highland the ethno-cultural history of the Kingdom of Van must be considered as an integral part of the history of Armenia and the Armenian nation.
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STUDIES IN THE ARMENIAN MEDIEVAL HISTORIOGRAPHY AND CULTURE BY FRÉDÉRIC MACLER
Frédéric Macler is one of the prominent, honored and admired names of French Armenology (1869-1938). He has left an enormous Armenological heritage. He was one of the Armenophil movement’s leaders in France. To obtain Armenological materials and facts he made research trips to Holland, Spain, Italy, Austria, Poland, Denmark, Romania, Bulgaria, Syria, Constantinople, Tiflis and Ejmiatsin. Macler compiled catalogs of manuscripts of the libraries he had visited, including the Armenian manuscripts, preserved at the National Library of Paris. Macler made also copies of Armenian manuscripts in various libraries of the world, attached to them literary monuments.
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Documents: Armenian Genocide13
GERMAN HISTORIAN REVEALS 1100 PAGES OF DOCUMENTS IN VATICAN ARCHIVES ON ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
DOCUMENTS AND WEGNER PHOTOGRAPHS REPORTING ON THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
MORE ARMENIAN MASSACRES (THE NEBRASKA ADVERTISER)
The historical-geographical terminology is misrepresented in the articles presented bellow; e.g. instead of Western Armenia is often used Asia Minor, which in reality is to the west of it, as well as wrongly is used an artificial term “Kurdistan,” etc.
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GENERAL MASSACRE FEARED (BOSTON EVENING TRANSPORT)
ANOTHER MASSACRE PLANS OF TURKS (THE MERIDEN DAILY JOURNAL)
MASSACRE OF ARMENIANS BY ORDER OF A TURK (THE ST. LOUIS REPUBLIC)
MORE ARMENIAN MASSACRES (THE SIDNEY MAIL)
SYSTEM OF EXTERMINATION. Turks Begin Once More Massacre of Armenians (The McCook tribune)
TO DIVERT ATTENTION. Sultan Said to Have Ordered Massacre of Christians in Armenia (ABERDEEN HERALD)
SULTAN ISSUES BLOODY EDICT (STARK COUNTY DEMOCRAT)
TURKISH ATROCITIES (THE LEWISTON DAILY SUN)
REPORTS OF TURKISH ATROCITIES CONFIRMED (THE DESERET NEWS)
Books and Book Reviews9
ARMENIA IN V. BRYUSOV’S LITERARY-SOCIAL ACTIVITIES
“Gitutyun” Publishing House, Yerevan, 2016
The Russian outstanding poet, translator, literary critic and historian Valery Bryusov (1873-1924), at the request of the Moscow Armenian Committee’s Commission initiated to form and edit the works of the collection “The Poetry of Armenia” in the middle of 1915. The collection became an original monument in memory of the Armenian Genocide victims.
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THE ARMENIAN COMMUNITY IN IRAQ IN THE 20TH CENTURY, YEREVAN, 2016
Although the roots of the Armenian reorganized community in Iraq may be traced back to the beginning of the 17th century which was as a result of the forced relocation by Shah Abbas of the Armenians to Iran, some of whom later on moved to Mesopotamia, however, the number of the Armenians here increased by the arrival of approximately 20-25000 survivors of the Armenian Genocide who had fled from the Western Armenian provinces.
The one hundred-year story of the deported Armenians, mostly from the historical Vaspurakan district and other parts of Western Armenia and Cilicia. Because of the present political, economical and insecure situation in Iraq, Armenians as well as other Christians are compelled to emigrate again, but now from a country, which at the beginning of the 20lh century hosted and sheltered them, giving the opportunity of a new and productive life, which they fully accomplished to the benefit of the Armenian people as well as to the Iraqi hospitable state and people.
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MILITARY ART. AIR SUPREMACY
Military Art. Air Supremacy, Volume 1, Yerevan, 2016
During the last seventy years nearly no war was initiated on the ground. In order to estimate the role of Means of air attack (MAA) and the aviation in general we are to learn lessons also from our not remote past. The Armenian population also made use of Flying vehicles (FV) during the Artsakh struggle for existence, which served for the Armenian people as a strategic transport in the absence of land border.
Until the opening of the Berdzor (Lachine pass-corridor) all the transportation of the Armenian side was done with the help of aviation. Without hesitation we are to note that the aviation didn’t allow the enemy to empty Artsakh from native Armenians. It’s well known to the history some events when the transporting aviation played an essential role in this or that struggle.
Taking into consideration all above mentioned factors, we are to be the first to pass to the methodology of technological wars, as our human resources are strictly limited. In this age of new wars we should first of all take care of the development of the MAA. It’s necessary for us such MAA which could carry an attack to the day in day out arming Azerbaijan, even only to some painful zones. Such MAAs are reliable and satisfy the new requirements of the epoch.
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ARSHAK POLADIAN'S NEW BOOK THE DOCUMENTS ARMENIAN GENOCIDE UNDER OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Book review by Hamda Mustafa
"Eyewitnesses to the Armenian Genocide Under the Ottoman Empire", a book by the Armenian Ambassador to Syria Arshak Poladian, was signed on Tuesday within a ceremony held by the Damascus-based Commission for Commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Armenian Genocide in cooperation with the Culture Ministry at al-Assad Library. Many politicians, men of religion, intellectuals, journalists and interested people attended the book signing ceremony.
The book, published by "al-Sharq House for Publication and Printing", includes important selections from memoirs of three eyewitnesses to the genocide; Syrian lawyer Faez al-Ghusein, Na'eem Bek al-Turki and clergyman father Ishaq Armala al-Siriani. It presents documents and photos uncovering the atrocities committed by the Turkish leaders against the Armenian people under the Ottoman Empire early in the 20th century and which claimed the lives of a million and a half innocent Armenians.
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OUR VICTORIES (The First Volume)
OUR VICTORIES (The Second Volume)
OUR VICTORIES (The Third Volume)
OUR VICTORIES (The Forth Volume)
The volume (the authors Suren Martikyan, Vahan Mkrtchyan, Ruben Sahakjan, Tigran Devrikyan, Artsrun Hovhannisyan; military editor Vahan Karapetyan) includes the period of the th-20th centuries. It begins with the descriptions of the victories of the Armenian military forces during the liberation struggles of Artsakh and Syunik in 1720s and ends with the glorious and convincing victories of the Artsakh Liberation War (the end of the 20th c.). Special attention is paid to the guerilla movement, as well as to the participation of Armenians in the wars against the Persian and Ottoman Empires and in the two World Wars in the 20th century.
The last chapter of the book presents episodes of the Artsakh Liberation War. Both the volunteer squads (commanders - Leonid Azgaldyan, Tatul Krpeyan, Ashot Ghulyan and many others) and the regular armed forces of the Third Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Artsakh (the Republic of Mountainous Karabakh) under the command of Generals Dalibaltayan, Ter-Grigoryan, Ivanyan, Ter-Tedevosyan and many others showed brilliant results in that war.
LOU URENECK. THE GREAT FIRE, ONE AMERICAN MISSION TO RESCUE VICTIMS OF THE 20TH CENTURY’S FIRST GENOCIDE
New York, 2015, (508 pages, plus 16 pages photo annex)
Book review by V. V. Hambardzumyan
Lou Ureneck’s “The Great Fire” was published in 2015 by Harper-Collins Publishers, New York, USA. Released during the Armenian Genocide Centennial, the book proved to be a successful attempt in unpacking the hidden story of the 20th Century’s First Genocide for the public in the United States, Canada and beyond.
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