THE NORTH-WESTERN REGION (THE UPPER LAND) OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLAND WITHIN THE HITTITE STATE
The Upper (or High) Land mainly included the territory which later became known as Armenia Minor. That is, in the geographical sense a considerable part of its territory was part of the Armenian Highland and from that viewpoint its history is also part of the history of the old period of Armenia. It can be assumed that the Hittites adopted the toponym Upper Land from the Hattians. Anyhow, already during the Old Kingdom (17th-16th centuries BC) the territory of Upper Land was within the Hittite state. The main river of Hatti, Marassantiya (Halys) originated and flowed in Upper Land mentioned in the Hittite sources and the name of the region is conditioned by the circumstance of going up the river and getting to its headwaters. The Hittite sources do not allow to precisely mark the borders of the Upper Land (especially because the Hittite-Kaskian north-eastern borderline always changed), it is definite that it was mainly in the upper basin of the river Halys and included mainly the territory from Zile (Zela) to Kamakh, in the north reaching the valley of the river Gayl (Lykus) and the territory of Eastern Pontic mountains (where it bordered with the lands of the Kasks) and in the south - Tegarama. After the fall of the Hittite Kingdom (about 1180s BC) the Hittite Upper Land was no more mentioned in the sources. It is likely that the territory of Upper Land was temporarily invaded by the combative Kaskian tribes. The name of Upper (Higher) Land is also closely related to the name of Upper Armenia mentioned in the Armenian sources. The territory of Upper Armenia province was geographically close to that of the Upper Land or probably was also part of it.
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“THE PEAK OF THE EARTH”: CRADLE OF THE INDOEUROPEAN AND SUMERIAN STORM GOD
The province of Bardzr Hayk’ (Upper Armenia) of Great Armenia has an important role in clarification issues of Indo-European-Sumerian mythological interrelations. Here were situated those three mountain ranges and upper courses of the four rivers which according to “Ashkharatsuyts” by Movses Khorenatsi (Vc.) and Anania Shirakatsi (VII c. ) were located in the highest place of the Earth - “the Peak of the Earth”.
A research based on the typological and linguistic analyses of Armenian and Mesopotamian mythological materials suggests that it is impossible wholly to reveal and comprehend deep layers of certain Sumero-Akkadian mythological images without taking into consideration those parallels and juxtapositions which originated in the Armenian Highland and preserved in the Armenian lingvomentality and were reflected in the Armenian mythopoetic notions and the Armenian language.
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THE HAYKAZUNS AND THE KINGDOM OF VAN (ARARAT-URARTU)
The Mentioning of Patriarch Skayordi Haykazuniin a Cuneiform Inscription
The number of cuneiform inscriptions of the Kingdom of Van is estimated at around 900 , most of which are so-called monumental inscriptions written on the stones, steles, column bases and rocks which served as a basis for cuneiform deciphering. Comparatively much less (around two dozen) is the number of documents and letters written on clay tablets. They differ from the monumental inscriptions by their content, graphics, style and lexicon. For that reason, their exact deciphering is connected with certain difficulties and most of them get considerably different interpretations by scholars or remain non-translated . A century ago in the territory (Western Armenia) of the ancient city of mRusa=ḫi=ne=le ŠADÛQi/elbani=kai a similar inscription (document) was discovered and published by Lehmann-Haupt which should be probably dated by the reign period of Rusa II (around 685-645 BCE), son of Argište II. By its content, this inscription consists of two parts, a header and the main text. The header is a means of dating where the date is fixed according to the most significant event(s) of the year. We should focus on its first part (header) which is on the tablet’s facial side and occupies the first six lines.
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ON THE PROBLEM OF THE SUCCESSION OF THE BIAINIAN KINGS OF THE ARARAT (URARTU) KINGDOM IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 8th - THE FIRST HALF OF THE 7th CENTURY B.C.
The chronology of the succession of the Biainian kings of the second half of the 8th – the first half of the 7th century B.C. has its gravity in the circle of the research problems on the Ararat (Urartu)-Van Kingdom history. According to the previously existing viewpoint in historiography “the end of the chronology” of the reign of the kings of the Kingdom of Van reaches the years of the Mеdian-Lydian war – 590-585BC, connecting it to the conquest of the Kingdom of Van by the Medians. Nevertheless, a number of questions, especially concerning the reign of the last kings of the Kingdom of Van still remain debatable. Particularly problematic are the interpretations concerning the reign and chronology of Sarduri III, Sarduri IV, Erimena, Rusa III and Rusa IV who supposedly succeeded Rusa II and are known from the inscriptions of the Ararat (Biainian) kingdom.
For the preservation and development of the Armenian statehood as regards the political developments of the 7th century BC,, the contribution of Skayordi Haykazun and especially his son Paruyr Haykazun was important in the struggle against Assyria together with Media and Babylon, which ended with the fall of Nineveh in 612 BC and the recognition of Paruyr Haykazun as the Armenian king.
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THE ARMENIAN PRINCELY SYSTEM IN VASPURAKAN DURING THE STRUGGLE OF THE ARMENIAN PEOPLE AGAINST THE ARAB CALIPHATE’S DOMINANCE (THE 8th CENTURY)
Since ancient times the lordly right had been retained in Vaspurakan, the 8th province of Great Armenia. The Vaspurakan princedom was a part of the Armenian statehood's system.
During the 8th century there were several rebellions against the rule of the Arab Caliphate in Armenia. Vaspurakan princes took part in them along with other Armenian princely families Despite the heavy losses Vaspurakan had retained its autonomy headed by the Artsrunis, around whom the other princely families or their remnants united (also including some members of the Rshtuni family that had disappeared and now bore the family name of Artsruni.
The acts of violence by the Abbassides and the resettlement policy of the Arab tribes threatened to distort the demographic image of Armenia. However, thanks to the Armenians’ national vitality and commitment to the Homeland and its holiness, and of course, due also to a unanimous and self-sacrificing struggle against invaders, several Armenian princely families and, particularly, the Bagratunis and the Artsrunis mainly retained their princely autonomy and power.
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FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ARMENIAN VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT ON THE RUSSIAN-TURKISH FRONT DURING WORLD WAR I
During World War I a considerable number of Armenians participated in the volunteer movement with a single aim: to save their compatriots form the genocide and liberate the western part of the Homeland - Western Armenia from the Ottoman despotism. Substantial facts and evidence unmask falsification of the history of the Armenian volunteer movement by Turkish historians and political figures whose purpose is the denial of the Armenian Genocide. The self-defense of the Western Armenians in 1915 and the Armenian volunteer movement in 1914-1916 were a response against the policy of genocide committed by the Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish falsifications (of the history of the self-defence of Armenians and the Armenian volunteer movement) are abortive because the Armenians in Western Armenia rose up to resist Turkish armies which accomplished genocide. Armenians defended their families and Homland. Armenian volunteers, enrolled in the Russian Army, participated in the liberation battles of a considerable part of Western Armenia, where the civilian population was massacred by Turks.
The volunteers’ experience of fighting against the Turkish army became very useful in May, 1918 when Turkish troops invaded the Ararat valley aiming to occupy also Eastern Armenia by continuing genocide. But the Turks were defeated by the Armenian forces in the heroic battle of Sardarapat, which heralded the birth of the First Republic of Armenia on May 28, 1918.
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THE HEROIC BATTLE OF MOUSSA LER ACCORDING TO THE TESTIMONIES OF THE EYEWITNESS SURVIVORS
In point of fact, the Adana massacre (1909) was the beginning of the Armenian Genocide, when the Young Turks, assuming as a basis the resolutions of the secret meeting of the “Ittihat ve Terakki” party held in Salonica, in 1911, were hastily getting ready to completely exterminate the Armenian people, waiting for a propitious opportunity; this opportunity was provided, when World War I broke out. Turkey entered the war having predatory objectives and with the monstrous plan to realize the total extermination of the Armenian people. The deportation and the massacre undertaken by the Young Turk tyranny had, in the course of a few months, assumed an extensive character in Western Armenia, Cilicia and Asia Minor. One after the other, Armenian-inhabited localities of Asia Minor were also being deserted one after the other. In contrast, the majority of the participants of the Moussa Ler meeting had made the right decision and had not obeyed the deleterious order of deportation. Everybody was filled with the feeling of protest and vengeance. Men and women, children and old people left their homes and orchards and ascended the inaccessible summit of Moussa Ler, carrying with them their cattle and provisions, to heroically withstand the attack, to fight against the innumerable soldiers of the enemy, to fully defend their honor and dignity.
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GENERAL ANDRANIK OZANIAN’S ACTIVITIES ABROAD (1919-1927)
General Andranik Ozanian struggled during his entire life and by all possible means, against the enemies of the nation; he devoted himself to the liberation of the native land and to gain the freedom of his people. When the General’s Homeland-preserving struggle was suspended by international forces, and, indeed, his task remained unfinished, nonetheless, finding himself in emigration, he continued, under the new conditions, to contribute to the salvation of the nation’s genofund: to favor the repatriation of the deportees and refugees to the Motherland at his time, as well as in future to the Armenian territories being liberated (as decades later after Andranik’s death it has been realized in Artsakh), to make plans for their accommodation in the country. It was very hard for the General to reconcile himself with the fact of living in foreign lands, when he had dedicated his entire life to the liberation of his native land and people. By organizing in foreign countries periodical fund-raising actions and appearing in public with his Armenia-centered speeches and writings, the national hero Andranik continued his Motherland-supporting and All-Armenian nation-devoted mission.
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Historical Geography and Cartography2
AT THE SUMMIT OF ARARAT-MASIS (a video)
The most valuable and magnificent names Ararat-Masis for us Armenians have been known since earliest times. Ararat is mentioned in the Bible as a name of the mountain where Noah’s ark rested after the Flood subsided. The word Ararat is presented as Armenia in Vulgatae and King James Bible. It is suggested that the names of both Aratta (the 3rd millennium BC) of the Sumerian and Urartu (Van Kingdom, the first half of the 1st millennium BC) of the Assyrian cuneiform sources are derivations of the name of Ararat.
During centuries many travelers admired the Ararat-Masis and tried to climb to the summitit. In the 19th century the most succesful were Prof. Parrot and famous Armenian writer Khachatur Abovyan who then joined and climbed the mountain with Herman von Abich. In the course of the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century there were new expeditions to the summit of Ararat.
By the 1921 illegitimate treaties of Moscow and Kars, with the annexation of Kars comprising part of Eastern Armenia to Turkey, the perpetrator of the Armenian Genocide, started the history of “captivity” of free Masis - Ararat, the highest peak of the Armenian Highland, the cradle of Armenians. In 1950s the routes up Masis were re-opened for the mountaineers of the world. Gradually Ararat turned into one of the centers of international mountaineering thus bringing great financial benefit to the Turkish authorities. But for Armenians the iron curtains of the roads of the so much desired mountain peak were not raised. The Armenians tried to be on top of the biblical peak within numerous foreign mountaineering organizations.
During the recent years the incredible stories of different groups about reaching the summit of Ararat, perturbed and inspired new layers of the Armenian nation. The first day of our ascent, August 8, 2007 was not chosen by chance. In case of a three-day successful ascent the Armenian group would be on the top on August 10, i.e. on a very symbolic day for Armenians, the day of the Treaty of Sevres. On August 10 from the height of about 5000 m, on the peak flooded in the sunrays, flying flags could already be seen. Between 8:45 and 9:18 Yerevan time all the members of the group reached the peak.
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A SELECTION OF ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORICAL MAPS FROM THE CARTOGRAPHIC HERITAGE OF ZATIK KHANZADIAN (a video)
ZATIK H. KHANZADIAN (1886-1980), famous cartographer of the 20th century.
Zatik Khanzadian's contribution is great as to the sphere of Armenology, as well as to the cartography in general. Among many atlases his most prominent publications are “Rapport sur l'unité géographique de l'Arménie. Atlas historique” (Patis, 1920) and “Atlas de cartographie historique de l'Arménie”, l'auteur: Zadig Khanzadian (Patis, 1960).
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Archaeology and Etnography3
OBSERVATIONS OF THE ARMENIAN-AMERICAN JOINT EXPEDITION OF SHENGAVIT
The Armenian-American joint expedition focused the excavations mainly in the north-western part of the settlement, which was numbered as Site 2 in the 2000-2003 excavation period. The former 5x5m squares were enlarged up to 10x10m. The entire territory of the preserved part of the monument was included into a united net of squares. In 2009-2010 and 2012 excavations were performed in squares J:5, K:6, L:3, L:4, K:3, K:4, M:5 and I:14. In 2010 excavations were also carried out in the Necropolis named as Site 3.
In the result of the excavations of 2012 unique architectural forms and stratigraphic horizons were unearthed. In square K:6 at the depth of 3.25 m from the surface the sterile soil opened. Now as a result of it there is a new, clear stratigraphic picture of Shengavit, which suggests reviewing of the former notions. It is certain that cultural layers with the depth of three and a half meters contain at least 6-7 structural horizons here. As it was suggested before, according to Y. Bayburtyan there were 3, to S. Sardaryan and to H. Martirosyan 4 and in the author’s opinion at least 5 building periods in Shengavit. New observations not only proofread our views, but confirm the rapid, unceasing activities and lasting inhabitation of the city. In the northern side of the township we opened a section of a stone-laid city wall. Before, it was dug and published by S. Sardaryan. Many archaeologists who were present at the latter’s excavations accepted this fact undoubtedly, though several modern archaeologists argued upon the fact of the existence of a wall, particularly the defensive system in Shengavit in the Early Bronze Age. Recent excavations have proved there were really city walls. In order to protect their lives and possessions the ancient Shengavitians had built strong walls, which were ideal for that period, as they consisted of stone-laid walls, strengthened with rectangular towers, with a secret tunnel to the river Hrazdan. These components of the defensive system of the ancient Armenian fortification-building were typical to the later period as well, including the Middle Ages. Among the discoveries of the 2012 excavations the multi-room construction for cult rituals discovered in M:5 stands apart for its architectural forms
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ROCK CARVINGS OF ARMENIA
Rock-art in Armenia began in the Neolithic period, reaching its peak during the Bronze Age. Rock-carvings have great cognitive value as a cultural source. Their role is important for revealing the historical realities of the Armenian Highland in VII-I millennium BC, to determine the origins of the Armenian people and demographic processes.
Their great number, themes, style and variety testify the sacralized attitude of our ancestors to the rock-art sphere.
As a specific form of expressing emotion and information, rock-carvings represent a medium of communication. And if then Rock-art had the functions of Recording, Storage and Conveying, for us now it has aesthetic and cognitive functions. These bases allow to designate petroglyphs as reliable sources and, therefore, means of revealing the past.
The petroglyphs of Armenia, by their great number, variety of styles and rich content occupy a unique place in our cultural heritage in the Ancient World.
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ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF DVIN OF THE CLASSICAL AND EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIODS
The multi-layer Dvin archaeological site on the whole covers the period from the 3rd millennium BC to the 13th century AD. The present article is devoted to comparative analysis of corresponding archaeological materials and written sources concerning the survey of the cultural layers of the antique (classical) and early medieval periods of Dvin.
In a dense network of settlements in the northern rear of Artashat Dvin was distinguished by its beneficial geographical location, longevity of cultic function and significant economic potential. During the Artashesian period thick mud brick walls were rebuilt on the massive stone base around the hilltop of Dvin with tower-observatories controlling the valleys of the rivers Eraskh, Metsamor and Azat, and even providing a wide view of the northern approaches to Artashat. During the extensive construction of Dvin’s newly forming early medieval (4th-5th centuries) spiritual center on the south-western foot of the hill the fact of double massive use of architectural details and fined slabs belonging to the ancient structures (of white sandstone, tuff stone, basalt, granite) and the possible use of elaborate colorful ceramic utensils during ritual ceremonies prove that during the Artashesian period the traditional sanctuary known since the beginning of the 1st millennium BC preserved its function.
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Demography and Governance3
THE CURRENT STATUS AND PROBLEMS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARMENOLOGY IN ARMENIA
Armenology is regarded as one of the key directions of the national and scientific policy of the Armenian state. Therefore several important decisions have been adopted, aimed at the further development of that scientific domain.
– The Republic of Armenia Government N1 Protocol Resolution on January 12, 2012 established “The Concept of Developing Armenology”, “Strategy for Development of the Domain of Armenology in the RA in 2012-2025” and “The Timetable for Implementing the Arrangements of the Strategy for Development of the Domain of Armenology in the RA for 2012-2025”.
– The 1638-A decision of the RA Government on December 6, 2012 established an All-Armenian Foundation Financing Armenological Studies to be financed by 50 million drams from the budget.
– To coordinate Armenological works in the RA a board for Armenological problems has been established chaired by the Prime Minister of RA and consisting of Armenologists and state figures.
– The NAS RA Presidium and The Board of Trustees of the All-Armenian Foundation Financing Armenological Studies determined to establish publication of the five-lingual International scientific journal under the name of “Banber Haiagitutyan” (Journal of Armenian Studies) (2013) and the electronic journal “Fundamental Armenology” in English (2015).
– By the decision of the NAS RA Presidium, the membership of the International Board for coordination of Armenological Research has been established including renowned Armenologists from Armenia and abroad.
The three pillars of developing Armenology are: the RA National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan State University and the Matenadaran.
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FROM THE HISTORY OF THE KARS OBLAST' (1878-1918)
Historically a part of the province of Ayrarat in Great Armenia, gavar of Vanand had been captured by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century and was made a part of a large military-governorship known as the eyalet of Kars. During the 19th century, the Kars region-the historic gavar of Vanand-along with other Western Armenian districts, became an important factor in Russian foreign policy.
By provisions of the Russo-Turkish Treaty of San Stefano in February 1878, the districts of Bayazet, Alashkert (Vagharshakert), Kars, Ardahan, and Batum were ceded to the Russian Empire. Although Bayazet and Alashkert had to be ceded to the Ottoman Empire and the Russian army was required to withdraw from Karin-Erzrum as the result of the subsequent European-imposed Treaty of Berlin in July 1878, Kars (including Olti and Kaghzvan), Ardahan (including Artvin), and Batum were retained by Russia.
In 1915, during the Armenian Genocide a great number of refugees from Karin-Erzrum and other Western Armenian areas sought haven in the Kars Oblast'. In early 1918, in the aftermath of the Russian revolutions of 1917 and the Russian army's disorderly abandonment of the Caucasus front. By the peace treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 (Gregorian calendar), between Soviet Russia and Germany and its allies, Russia ceded all of Western Armenia as well as the entire provinces of Kars and Batum to the Ottoman Empire. Consequently, the Turkish armies attacked and captured all of the Western Armenian districts and in April occupied Kars Oblast'. But a few months later, on October 30, the Turks surrendered to the Allied Powers and by terms of the armistice were compelled to withdraw from Kars in early1919. The province was now rejoined with the Republic of Armenia and remained under Armenian jurisdiction until the Turkish aggression in the fall of 1920.
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CIVILIZATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE ARMENIAN STATE SYSTEM AND MODERN CHALLENGES
Armenia’s strategic position in Western Asia, rich natural resources of the Armenian Highland, military-economic might, high level of cultural achievements greatly contributed to the development of civilizational values. An examination of the historical background of the ethno-cultural, social and political foundations on which the traditional infrastructure of independent Armenian statehood is based helps to delineate the path of its historical development. It also helps to classify theoretically the regenerative developments in the political system of the Republic of Armenia and the Arstakh Republic (the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) and elaborate scientifically a conception of historical-comparative approaches in order to understand how the Armenian society can respond more efficiently and fundamentally to the rapid influx of modern reform ideas and projects. It is very important to comprehend the historically formed Armenian statehood’s responses to the present-day international developments in the context of the world multi-cultural processes marked by the trends of modern democratization and globalization. The reality is that the Armenian statehood, due to political circumstances, the national-liberation struggle and legitimate activities since 1991 is developing in the Republic of Armenia and the Artsakh Republic in a very complex geopolitical situation. The use of scientifically elaborated Armenian historic experience may help in this process taking into consideration the deeply rooted Armenian national values.
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Political Sciences and Informational Security3
THE ARMENIAN MOTHERLAND –THE FINAL HOME OF DIASPORA ARMENIANS
During last decades the Armenian communities in the Middle East have been considerably weakened. Communities cut off from their native lands, who now live in ethnically and religiously different environments, do not have a future.
The Armenian Diaspora’s future is connected with the prosperity of the Republic of Armenia and the Artsakh Republic and realization of the idea of restoring the might and territorial integrity of the Motherland.
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FALSIFICATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE ARTSAKH MELIQDOMS BY AZERBAIJANI HISTORIOGRAPHY
The history of the Meliqdoms (Principalities) of Artsakh constitutes an important part of Armenian history. In the absence of an independent Armenian state, in the 17th-18th centuries the Artsakh Meliqdoms remained the only power, which could potentially serve as a basis for the resurrection of the Armenian state.
The falsifications of the Azerbaijani pseudo-history constructors about the history of the Meliqdoms of Artsakh of the 17th-19th centuries are unmasked through references to numerous authentic facts and the failure of their spurious “theories” is shown on the basis of scientific literature.
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ANTI-ARMENIAN ACTIVITIES OF THE UNIVERSITY “ARMENOLOGICAL” DEPARTMENTS AND ANALITYCAL CENTRES IN TURKEY
In foreign countries Armenology in general has a number of important functions for Armeniancy, but in some cases it is distorted and made to serve anti-Armenian and anti-Armenological purposes. Today there are such “Armenological” centers abroad whose activity is different from others and has an adverse context. They can be described as anti-Armenological or pseudo-Armenological centers since they are engaged in anti-Armenian, anti-scientific and anti-propaganda activities. Such institutions have been founded and operate in Turkey, Azerbaijan, and also in some other countries by their initiation and sponsorship. The main purpose of those centers is to serve their political anti-Armenian interest in the information area. Thus, anti-Armenian centers disguised under the name of “Armenological” have strategic meaning for Turkey.
Taking into account that fact it should be mentioned that the real Armenological centers have great significance in conditions of current information warfare for unmasking and confronting the Turkish-Azerbaijani encroachments against Armenian history, culture and other fields of Armenology which is one of the important problems of contemporary Armenology. It concerns not only the protection of interests of Armenia and the Armenian Diaspora in the international sphere but also the informational security of the Armeniancy. Thus, as it is noted, the achievements of Armenology should become a reliable stronghold for the further strengthening of Armenian statehood and against anti-Armenian pseudoscience and propaganda.
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Philosophy and Law4
THE CONCEPT OF ARMENOLOGY AND THE RESEARCH METHODS
Research of the very nature of the problem of Armenology from the viewpoint of its theoretical, scientific nature, brings forth questions demanding answers corresponding to the present level of the development of science. It is time to define the subject-matter, tasks and the methods of Armenology. The classification of the methods and their analysis on the basis of Armenian materials can be a task of special research. The methods of research, as a rule, have their place not in the text but in the subtext. It does not mean that we undervalue a special investigation of those methods.
Research of a metascientifc character has an important significance in the modern stage of the development of science. It is an appropriate time together with metamathematics, metalinguistics, metalogic and other metascientific investigations to also have meta-Armenological research.
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MONTESQUIEU’S THOUGHTS ABOUT ARMENIANS
Charles-Louis Montesquieu (1689 - 1755), the famous writer, historian, economist, theorist of law, sociologist and aesthete was not only a great patriot and humanist, but also an Armenophile and contributed greatly to the honest cause of elaborating a socially benevolent opinion about the Armenian people in pre-Revolutionary France. Preferring the epistolary genre, widespread in the 18th century, Montesquieu, discusses different social, political, academic, cultural, moral, aesthetic and religious questions, which worried progressive intellectuals. Montesquieu inspires his reader with love and respect towards Armenians. From this point of view are very important his Persian Letters. Montesquieu also wrote about Armenia the Armenians and in his valuable historic work, "Reflections on the Causes of the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire".
Montesquieu contributed to the formation of true public opinion and the elaboration of a positive attitude towards the Armenian people in France and generally in the civilized world.
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THE CASE OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE IN THE UN INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
(The trial procedures and the determination of possible options)
Before applying to the UN International Court of Justice, there should be a thorough examination of the procedural specifics and possibilities of the International Court apart from preparing the application, in order to use them correctly and prevent the possible steps which could be taken by the opponent. From the view of the international law the application of the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide applied in 1948, is extremely important for the Armenian Genocide: it’s an issue of retroactivity towards the Armenian Genocide. After adoption of the UN Convention on Genocide in 1948 and after entering into force in 1951, the international law continued to develop, accepting new international legal documents in a result. 20 years after accepting the Convention on "Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide", on November 26, 1968, the United Nation adopted “Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity”. According to Article I (b), crimes against humanity whether committed in time of war or in time of peace as they are defined in the Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Nürnberg, of 8 August 1945 and confirmed by resolutions 3 (I) of 13 February 1946 and 95 (I) of 11 December 1946 of the General Assembly of the United Nations, eviction by armed attack or occupation and inhuman acts resulting from the policy of apartheid , and the crime of genocide as defined in the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
The Republic of Armenia will efficiently use its procedural opportunities and rights provided by court rules and practical directives, and demand from the court to pressure on the defendant Turkey, so it doesn’t try to abuse its rights.
After investigation of the case of the Armenian Genocide a just solution making by The UN International Court will be in the spirit of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
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THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE FORMATION OF THE INTERNAL FORCES– THE POLICE SYSTEM OF THE ARTSAKH REPUBLIC (NKR)
Movses Khorenatsi writes that the nobles of Artsakh of Great Armenia were called vostan (ոստան) and descended from the royal offsprings. In ancient and medieval Armenia just they comprised the elite of the Armenian cavalry (vostanik ոստանիկ) originating from the royal family.
The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (the Artsakh Republic) MIA was established in 1999 on the basis of the NKAO IA Department. It has departments, divisions, subsidiaries, regional bodies, its coat of arms, uniform, etc. On November 30, 2001 the National Assembly of the NKR passed “The Law of the NKR about the Police” and then “The Law of the NKR about Service in the Police” according to which the MIA of the NKR was re-established into the Police (Vostikanutyun)of the NKR and the official of the MIA – militia became a police officer. On April 16, 2003 the Artsakh militia was renamed to the police and it operates within the framework of the law “OnPolice” adopted by the NKR National Assembly. Law enforcement bodies realize the preservation of the social order and the fight with crime in the NKR. The NKR law “On Police” establishes the frameworks of their authorities. The NKR law enforcement system is headed by the Interior Ministry. The Ministry has departments in all the regions of the Republic and in capital Stepanakert . The operative situation in the NKR is controlled by the NKR Police Department orders, instructions of Police Departments` bodies, criminal and administrative codes and international documents.Since 2014 (by Decision N 124 of the government of the NKR as of March 4) the professional day of the police in the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic has been celebrated on November 30
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Arts and Architecture5
THE BRONZE STATUETTE FROM VAN AT THE LOUVRE MUSEUM
The bronze statuette discovered in the basin of Lake Van in 1872 currently is exhibited at the Louvre Museum.
It is an exclusive value in the Armenian music history. The bronze figurine is of 6.5 cm. height and introduces a sitting man playing wind instrument. This statuette depicting a musician is one of ancient specimens excavated in the Armenian Highland. The figurine has a “crest-like” hairdo (or a hat) with a small hole in the upper part (0,3 cm.). It is notable that this bronze statuette (dated to the 2nd millennium B.C. among the exhibits of the Louvre Museum) belongs to a number of statuettes discovered in different locations of Armenia which are dated to the 3rd -1st millennia B.C..
A version of a labial trumpet is present in the 15th century miniature of Artshesh, which is very like European medieval cornets called "cornet a buqin". Taking into consideration the sizes of Hamshen zourna the author decided to recreate a version of the ancient Armenian instrument preferring the traditional apricot wood.
The instrument of “bronze musician” excavated from the coasts of the Lake Van and exhibited in the Louvre Museum we called Vanapogh (“Van-trumpet”).
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KOMITAS VARDAPET AND MUSIC-THERAPY IN MEDIEVAL ARMENIA
The positive influence of music upon human health has been discovered in most ancient times. These ideas are reflected in Indian Vedas, Greek treatises, Eastern medicine - particularly in Arabic medical tractates.
The traditional theories of music-therapy were derived in Armenian medieval science by the great philosopher of the 5th century - Davit Anhaght (David the Invincible), who adopted them from scholars of the Ionic School.
The great philosopher and healer, the founder of the Cilician medical school Mkhitar Heraci (12th century), has also dealt with music-therapy problems in his famous tractate “Jermanc mxitarutyun”.
The great Armenian composer, singer, conductor, ethnologist and musicologist Komitas Vardapet (Archimandrite) in his article “Music Therapy” aimed to attract attention to a medieval manuscript kept in the Library of Ejmiatsin (the Holy Center of all Armenians), which elucidates the relaxing and healing influence of spiritual music upon human soul and body. So Komitas is the first musicologist who studied Music-therapy described in the Armenian medieval manuscript.
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Painting, Graphic, Arts
Yerevan., 2012 – 224 p.,
246 color reproductions.
“If the Foundations be Destroyed…” (pp. 27-31)
Adherence to tradition did not prevent H.Avetisyan’s creative “self-determination.” That is why, even by a cursory look at his painting, one senses the peculiarity of Avetisyan’s perception of the world and the distinctiveness of his artistic language. Everything agitated him: present, past and future, the outer world and an individual’s inner world, nature with its infinite richness of states. Such a wide embrace of reality led him to different genres: historical painting, portrait, landscape. Each of them appears, so to speak, in its pure form, but if we grasp Avetisyan’s work, then this division becomes at once conditional. Although different in genre and subject line, the works are closely bound up with a single theme, a coherent assertion of a single value, so that a landscape or a portrait is no less “historical” than his subject matter compositions. In retrospect it is easy to see, but to achieve this, the artist had to
travel a long road, nurturing and understanding what was in his heart.
The historical subject-matter, of course, raises some difficulties, but the national in art, unlike the language, never requires “translation,” especially when it tells about some¬thing that is congenial and clear to everyone – about love. Yes, the main force that prompted the artist to creation, the ultimate sense for the sake of which he created his works, is love: toward life, freedom, justice and, above all, love toward man. As the artist said, “The result of true art is always moral.” Adhering to these principles all his life, Hmayak Avetisyan left an inheritance of universal importance.
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THE ARTISTIC LEGACY OF IMPRESSIONISM AND ARMENIAN PICTORIAL ART (second half of XIX – first half of XX centuries)
The book is dedicated to a paramount problem of the Newest Time of Armenian visual arts,
that is, to the role of Impressionism in its formation and development. After several centuries of stagnation, Armenian Fine Arts joined a new phase of its history, which laid the foundation for its revival in the second half of XIX century. At the end of the same century a galaxy of outstanding masters came forward, who were educated in Europe and Russia and had successfully assimilated the pictorial and graphical system of the modern Western Art. The formation of creative art of this generation of Armenian masters coincided with the time when French Impressionism was spreading in European countries. The main achievements of Impressionism due to which European pictorial tradition was renewed, as it is well-known, were the enlightenment and activation of the color palette, spontaneity of the artistic accomplishment, freedom of compositional mastering, boldness of artistic ideas realization and the most significant - the turn to plein-air, in other words, out of door painting with all ensuing consequences.
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Toros Roslin is rightfully considered one of the most accomplished Armenian painters of the Middle Ages. He lived and worked in Cilician Armenia. His miniatures which are imbued with deep spiritual, poetical and noble feelings revealed through a harmonious colour pattern and composition; his impeccable taste, power of observation and distinctive mastery; the progressive tendencies which are so clearly manifested in his work and which put him well ahead most of his colleagues (not only Armenian ones) - all these qualities make Toros Roslin’s work unique among other developments of the 13th-century art.
Cilician painting is firmly rooted in the centuries-old Armenian tradition, it was created by exponents of this tra¬dition, who introduced stylistic innovations and modifications in strict accordance with the national character.
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THE HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ARMENIAN WRITING: ORIGINAL AND TRANSLATED LITERATURE AS AN ASPECT OF THE DIALOGUE OF CIVILIZATIONS
Writing is an important factor of inter-civilizational relations through translated, as well as original literature. Armenia’s centuries-old written legacy in the treasury of world culture is very much conductive to the dialogue of civilizations which is a guarantee for the security of the world civilization.
Philosophical comprehension of the civilizational future of the humankind is founded on the revelation and deepening the ways of the dialogue between civilizations, taking as a basis the historical experience of each people separately and the world civilization in its entity. It is necessary to comprehend and realize on the international level the defense of cultural-historic heritage of each people (the monuments of architecture, the works of art, manuscripts etc.), especially, of the Armenian people in the Motherland, including its historic parts. It may become a guarantee of the security of the world civilization by means of the dialogue of civilizations.
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A UNIQUE DOCUMENT OF THE CONSTANTINOPLE LIBRARY DATED TO 695 AD
In 695 the Greek to Armenian skillful translator Philon Tirakatsi returned to Armenia from Constantinople. He brought with him the Armenian translation of “The Ecclesiastical History” of Socrates Scholastocus and handed it to Catholicos Sahak Dzoraporetsi in Dvin. It had a colophon.
M.Ter-Movsesyan, I. Orbeli, R. Blаkе, N.Adontz, P.Mouradyan and R.Vardanyan paid attention to this colophon. M.Ter-Movsesyan was sure of the originality of the four system dating in the colophon and tried to correlate with each other. I. Orbeli considered the synchronism of dates as the most vulnerable point in this colophon. He suggested that there was denoted only а kind of original date the rest were developed later. R. Blаkе considered quite the possible existence of a chronology based on the Birth of Christ in the Christian Orient in the 7th century. And it had been proved by the studies of а cryptographic inscription from Eghvard, a colophon notion by Anania Shirakatsi and the colophon of the translation of Socrates Scholasticus’ work. It might be a colophon-like unique reference of an early medieval library file which was usual in Byzantium. It could be given out on the occasion of finishing the translation of the work of Socrates Scholastocus in the Constantinople library. Thus it may be supposed that, according to the accepted order, the library inspector gave Philo Tirakatsi a reference in Greek stating that he finished the translation of the book of Socrates Scholastocus in 695/6
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AN ENGLISH DIGEST OF NAREK (a video)
The scenic performance presented herewith is an attempt to invite attention of the Christian members of the general public to the phenomenon of St. Grigor of Narek (Narekatsi), the greatest Armenian poet and thinker, the theological writer and the author of several masterpieses of the 10th-century Armenian literature. The text of the recital is one among the multitude of possible digests, which can be extracted from The Book of Lamentations by St. Narekatsi with a view to some spritual subjects. This audio show may stimulate a listener to further acquaintence with the subject matter.
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ELEMENTS OF THE GRAMMATICAL THEORY OF TRANSLATION
Translation is a rendering from one language into another, based on linguistic, cognitive and ontological resources. Given that language and mind are united, and the language provides a precise expression of thought, there is no thought beyond what is expressed by language. The requirement to know the subject refers us to extralinguistic factors. If it is proven that the author of a text writes what he thinks, then the translation should restrict itself to translating what is written. Meanwhile, to remain within the boundaries of the original text, an ambiguity whould be translated by an ambiguity, polisemantics by polisemantics, indeterminacy by indeterminacy, etc. Good results could be obtained by a possible amplification of ambiguity or indeterminacy in the target text as compared with the same phenomena in the source text.
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THE ARMENIAN QUESTION IN AVETIK ISAHAKYAN’S WORLDVIEW
Avetik Isahakyan first wrote about the Armenian Question under the influence of the massacres of the peaceful Armenian population in Sasun and Zeitun in 1894, in a record made on November 5, 1894 in the book “Hishatakaran” (“The Diaries“, a kind of a confessional book where are collected the poet’s diaries from 1891 to 1956 - his thoughts and reflections).
In the face of Isahakyan the Armenian liberation movement acquired not only a talented singer-herald of the national idea, but also a political figure utterly devoted to his Mother-land who joined his destiny with the Armenian Question.
Since the early period of his creative activities Isahakyan kept the Armenian Question at the center of his attention. It runs like a red thread through his book “Hishatakaran”. Isahakyan’s diary on the Armenian Question from the moment of its creation and during the following 100 years lost not a bit of its relevance, moreover, in its philosophical generalization it can be called a book of the future, which gives us a glimpse into the future.
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Documents: Armenian Genocide19
THE ERZEROUM MASSACRE: ARMENIANS SLAUGHTERED AND THE BRITISH CONSULATE STONED (NEW YORK TIMES)
CRUELTY OF THE TURKS. PROF. BRYCE DESCRIBES THE CONDITION OF ARMENIA. (NEW YORK TIMES)
MASSACRE OF ARMENIANS: EQUALS THE BULGARIAN BUTCHERIES WHICH LED TO WAR. OVER SIX THOUSAND MURDERED (NEW YORK TIMES)
TERRIBLE ATROCITIES IN ARMENIA (THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD)
THOSE ARMENIAN ATROCITIES (THE SCRANTON TRIBUNE)
ARMENIAN REFUGEES (BISMARCK WEEKLY TRIBUNE)
THOSE ARMENIAN MASSACRES (BOSTON EVENING TRANSCRIPT)
THE WORST WAS NOT TOLD; ARMENIAN MASSACRES DESCRIBED BY THE REV. GEORGE H. FILIAN. HORRIBLE ATROCITIES OF THE KURDS. STILL MORE REVOLTING CRUELTIES PROPHESIED -- TURKEY'S DENIALS DECLARED TO BE FALSE -- FUTURE OF ARMENIA (NEW YORK TIMES)
RED HORRORS IN SASSOUN. THE ATROCITIES IN ARMENIA NOT EXAGGERATED (LOS ANGELES HERALD)
PERSECUTION OF THE ARMENIANS (NEW YORK TIMES)
KURDISH FIENDISH CRUELTY (NEW YORK TIMES)
EIGHT THOUSAND BUTCHERED: THE HORRORS OF THE ARMENIAN MASSACRES ONLY JUST BEGINNING TO BE REALIZED BY THE WORLD (NEW YORK TIMES)
ANOTHER ARMENIAN HOLOCAUST, FIVE VILLAGES BURNED, FIVE THOUSAND PERSONS MADE HOMELESS, AND ANTI-CHRISTIANS ORGANIZED (NEW YORK TIMES)
THE ARMENIAN OUTRAGES (BROOKLYN DAILY EAGLE)
SHOCKING CRIMES OF THE TERRIBLE TURK (THE SAN FRANCISCO CALL)
TWO MORE MASSACRES. THOUSANDS OF ARMENIANS MURDERED AT MARASH (THE CHENANGO SEMI-WEEKLY TELEGRAPH)
THE HARBORD MISSION REPORTS ON ARMENIA, 1919 IN THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE ARCHIVES (a video)
In June and August of 1919 the Paris Peace Conference discussed a lot of problems related to the Ottoman politics and the U.S. mandate for Western Armenia. European powers, namely Great Britain and France did not reject a possibility to establish the vast American zone of influence, encompassing Eastern and Western Armenia, Cilicia, as well as Constantinople with the Straits.
The U.S. President Woodrow Wilson announced that his country should allot regiments and money to establish a new semi-independent unit of multiethnic pattern. Besides, he always mentioned that his point of view would pass the Senate Committee debates. As follows from the documents mentioned below there was a threat of Turkish aggression against the Republic of Armenia. It was apparent that the Turkish side, continuing its policy of genocide against Western Armenians, activated its aggressive policy against Eastern Armenia too. In the beginning of August, 1919, the Chairman of the Peace conference and Major General Harbord were informed of the widespread Turco-Tatar movement in the Arax valley, aimed against the Republic of Armenia. Headed by commander of the 15th Army Corps Colonel Kiazim Karabekir and saturated with Turkish officers, it was a purely political undertaking.
Here we present a number of first-hand accounts, prepared by a group of experts, who ranked from two Brigadier Generals, Frank R.McCoy and George Van Horn Moseley to 1st Lieutenant Harutiun Khachadoorian. Their essays are kept in the U.S. National Archives at Washington (following: US NA), collection M820 General records of the American commission to negotiate peace, 1918-1931, American delegation, Field mission of the American delegation, Harbord military mission to Armenia. Microfilm publications, National Archives and Records Service, General Service Administration, 1970, reel 230, vol.204, and reel 232, together with National Archives of Armenia at Yerevan (following: NAA), collection of microfilms reels 2 and 4 (following: MR). We represent below a selection of the Harbord Mission reports, though all its dispatches compile several dozens of volumes, not to remind its photos and films. We do believe that this first-hand sources are really useful for any research devoted to so intricate and dramatic Political History of the First Republic of Armenia.
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ACCOUNTABILITY FOR DESTRUCTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE: THE CASE OF JUGHA
Violation of Articles 13 and 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Overwhelming evidence indicates that the Azerbaijani armed forces are responsible for the destruction of the Armenian medieval Necropolis in Jugha (Julfa) in December 2005. Despite this, the international community, including UNESCO, has neither assessed this destruction nor condemned or sanctioned it. The Switzerland-Armenia Association (SAA) underlines that these acts of hatred are in violation of the principles of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (hereinafter referred to as the «Covenant»), mainly expressed in the preamble as well as in the Articles 13 and 15 of the Covenant. International organizations are committed to the protection of universal values concerning cultural heritage. OSCE Member States have, for instance, adopted a wide range of commitments to combating such crimes, including the condemnation of violent acts motivated by discrimination and intolerance. In addition, these States have also conducted response training of security-relevant officials and other public civil servants, reviewed legislation, facilitated the capacity of civil society to monitor hate-motivated incidents and assisted victims. These tangible commitments have been taken in recognition of the fact that hate crimes pose a potential threat to domestic and international security, as they undermine social cohesion and plant the seeds of violence. Yet, SAA cannot but notice that the destruction of the Jugha Necropolis has remained a matter of indifference for the civil society in Azerbaijan at large and for international organizations. Research has proven that an effective prevention of such acts is dependent on a consequential identification, legal prosecution and punishment supported by the development of a range of information and educational skills. This approach is applicable in cases where infringements involve individuals or groups, but not in cases where there is a direct or indirect institutional involvement. By not recognizing and, consequently, not taking responsibility for such acts, the international community runs the risk of siding unintentionally with hate-motivated perpetrators.
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Books and Book Reviews18
THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA, VOLUME 2, BOOK II YEREVAN, 2014
The second book of the second volume of the four-volume academic “The History of Armenia” includes the period of the Middle Ages: from the middle of the 9th century to the mid of the 17th century. It covers issues such as the reign of the Bagratuni dynasty, the period of flourishing of Armenian architecture, arts, education (particularly high schools of Ani, Gladzor and Tatev Universities, etc.), the expansionist policy of the Byzantine Empire towards Armenia, Turkish-Seljuq and then Tatar-Mongol devastating invasions and rule, the Armenian Zakarian princedom and other Armenian principalities, the Armenian princedom and kingdom of Cilicia, the liberation movement of XVI-XVII centuries, Armenian communities, social-economic issues and issues of the cultural history of that period, etc.
THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA, VOLUME 3, BOOK I YEREVAN, 2010
The first book of the third volume of the four-volume academic “The History of Armenia” includes the period of the new history: from the second half of the 17th century to the end of the 19th century. It covers issues such as the Armenian liberation movements and programs, the joining of Eastern Armenia to the Russian Empire, the internationalization of the Armenian Question, the formation of liberation groups and parties, the Armenian massacres of 1890s, self-defense struggle of Armenian, social-economic issues and issues of the cultural history of that period, etc.
THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA, VOLUME 3, BOOK II YEREVAN, 2015
New period (the second half of the 17th c.-1918).
Book II (1901-1918), Armenian communities, periodical press and culture in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries
It is the Second Book of the Third volume of the Academy many-volumed set “The History of Armenia” which includes the last stage (1901-1918) of the new history of Armenia, the period of complex and turbulent events.
The volume is devoted to the elucidation of social-economic problems (of the beginning of the 20th century), national and social movements in Armenia, as well as the activities of the Armenian volunteer units during the World War I. The Armenian Genocide and the problem of the Armenians' Patricide (deprivation of the Fatherland) is studied newly. A special attention is paid as to the political events in Armenia after the 1917 Revolutions in Russia, as well as to the May Heroic battles of 1918 which resulted in realization of the Armenian peoples' aspirations to recreate the Armenian state: on May 28, 1918 the independent Republic of Armenia was established. The questions of development of the Armenian periodical press, pages relating to the Armenian Diaspora, as well as the rise of the Armenian cultural life in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century are also presented in the volume.
THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA, VOLUME 4, BOOK I YEREVAN, 2010
In the first book of the fourth volume of the four-volume academic “The History of Armenia” is presented the modern history of Armenia. It includes the periods of the declaration (due to the victorious May battles of 1918) of independent First Republic of Armenia (1918-1920) (internal and external conditions (political, economic, cultural, educational, diplomatic, military) of its development and difficulties), the Second Republic or Soviet Armenia (the end of November 1920- September 1991) (the formation of the centralized command-based, totalitarian system in the USSR, forced collectivization and industrialization, and the political repressions in the 1930s, when many Armenias also fell victim of political repressions), the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). The Armenians were also a very active participant of the war both in the front and in the rear. By several criteria Armenians were in the first ranks among the USSR peoples by the number of marshals, generals, heroes of the victorious Soviet Union and those awarded, and other aspects.
The second book of the 4th volume of the four-volume “The History of Armenia” will include the history of the decades after 1945. As a result of the collapse of the USSR (1991) the Third Republic of Armenia was established. The volume will cover the history of the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Mountainous Artsakh (Karabakh) and the Diaspora till the end of the XX century.
COMMENTARY ON GENESIS BY EGHISHE
Scholarly work by Academician Levon Khachikyan.
Introduction and editing by H. Kyoseyan. Translated by M. Papazian, Erevan, 2004
If the Book of Genesis or of the Creation is the beginning of the Bible, then Armenian biblical commentary begins with Eghishe's Commentary on Genesis. Eghishe's Commentary on Genesis is truly the first fruit of Armenian accomplishment in sacred theological literature. As with many other works, it has suffered a difficult fate. For a time it was lost and abandoned in chaos, its original text diffused. It was only through the fortunate accident that still in the tenth century in Armenian ecclesiastical literature, large and small fragments of this original manuscript were preserved in the commentaries on Genesis compiled by the priest David and vardapet Timothy. It is significant that Eghishe's Commentary on Genesis survived in Armenian ecclesiastical literature as far as the tenth century.
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FORMATION OF THE ARMED FORCES IN THE THIRD REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
The research is the first step to discuss the process of the formation of the Armenian armed forces in the early 1990, which ran parallel with military actions, in desperate economic conditions and under the blockade, and in general during the formation of the new Armenian statehood, as well. In addition, whole process of the military actions, the different battles and operations, and also the Armenian military culture and the ways of thinking are presented. In the separate chapters of scientific research the stages of development of the army and main post- Ceasefire processes are studied - in short, the way from a so-called fighting groups to an organized armed forces and the process of armed forces transition to an army of new era. This is a difficult period for the Armenian people, which was hardly overcome, but it was an opportunity for the Armenian people to win the war. The research consists of three chapters.
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FROM THE HISTORY OF THE POLICE OF ARMENIA
A short book-review by Lieutenant-General of Police
The authors’ good command of historical, legal and economic matters as well as the knowledge of police affairs guaranteed the effectiveness and significance of this work. It is based on facts and archive documents being an exceptional phenomenon. At every step is possible to see news and findings.
In 1990s many officers devoted themselves to the Artsakh Liberation war, as well as transmitted their exemplary working style to the next generation.
This work together with the preceding one aims at making a substantial contribution to the policing theory. It has been in great demand for a long time, because if a policeman doesn’t make use of a theory he does make use of a bad one.
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ARMENIA IN THE MILITARY–INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX OF THE USSR (1922–1991)
For the first time in the Armenian historiography the problem of participation of the branches of the Military Defense industry and science of Soviet Armenia in the military–industrial complex (MIC) of the USSR in 1922–1991 is generalized and comprehensively studued on the basis of numerous declassified archival documents, historical evidence, published collections of documents and materials, as well as the scientific literature. The study also examines the questions of organization and implementation of military and defensive mesures in Soviet Armenian.
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THE DECLINE OF THE WESTERN ARMENIAN PRESS (1900-1922)
Western Armenian neutral press of the first quarter of the 20th century displayed the ethnic, political and cultural life of Western Armenians, living in the Ottoman Empire. It was almost the last period of the history of Western Armenian print that manifested not only the reality of the Armenian communities in the western regions of the Ottoman Empire, but also the real existence of the Armenian population in western part of the Armenian Homeland - Western Armenia until the Armenian Genocide. After the genocide and patricide perpetrated against the Armenian nation in Western Armenia and the end of the First World War, Armenian press published in Smyrna and Constantinople, lost its national and spiritual bases that it ever had in the Homeland and began to function as a spiritual sphere and a means of information for the Armenians of Smyrna (until the 1922 disaster of Smyrna) and Constantinople.
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WESTERN ARMENIAN REALITY IN RUSSIAN PUBLICIST T. OLGENIN’S ESTIMATION
At the beginning of the 20th century the Armenian Question entered a new stage. The defeat of Turkey in the Bal¬kan war aroused expectancies in Armenian political circles of the quick decision of that issue. The Armenian Question turned out to be in the sphere of interests of great powers - Armenia was oftener mentioned in the diplomacy on different occasions. European, and particularly, the Russian press published articles about the hard and tragic fate of Western Armenians in the Ottoman Empire.
At the end of 1912 and the beginning of 1913 the correspondent of St. Petersburg newspapers “Novoye vremya” (“New Time”) - then “Birzheviye vedomosti” (“Stock-exchange Bulletin”), well-known publicist Antuan Berezovsky-0lginsky (pseudonym - T.Olgenin) arrived in Tiflis. In Tiflis (January 3), later in Etchmiadzin (January 23) he gave lectures on the Balkan war, in which he touched upon also the Armenian Question. From the end of January up to the middle of May Olgenin visited six provinces of Western Armenia ֊ Erzurum, Van, Baghesh (Bitlis), Tigranakert, Sebastia, Kharberd. Travelling about these places, he thoroughly studied the social-economic and political situation of Western Armenians. The publicist published his impressions in “Birzheviye Vedomo¬sti” in a series of correspondences under the title “Vanishing Ar¬menia”. These materials, written under the direct impression of what he had seen and experienced, have the importance of histor¬ical documents.
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SERGEY GORODETSKY IN WESTERN ARMENIA AND TRANSCAUCASIA (1916-1921)
Among the representatives of Russian social-political, military, literary - cultural figures having displayed active work in Western Armenia and Transcaucasia during World War I and the following years, prominent poet, writer, publicist, translator and public figure Sergey M. Gorodetsky (1884 ֊ 1967) deserves particular attention. At the beginning of April 1916 the Russian poet was sent to Caucasian front as a figure of All - Russian Union of cities and a correspondent to “Russkoye Slovo”. On April 10- 12 in the Tiflis department of the Union of cities he was appointed to work in Van. Just at that time Gorodetsky happened to get acquainted with famous Armenian poet Hovhannes Toumanyan. Acquaintance and growing intimacy with him predetermined the direction of his activities in Western Armenia. On April 20 Gorodetsky went to Van as a representative of the Union of cities from Atrpatakan region and displayed vigorous activities rescuing orphans. On the 22nd of September he again went to Van and till November of the same year took the place of the representative of the Union of cities there. The poet organized food - supply to population, medical assistance of refugees, saved from death and starvation hundreds of children, opened refuges. By all his activities S. Gorodetsky left a good name of a true friend of Armenians in grateful memories of generations in hard times for them.
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Historical monuments are numerous in the Armenian Highland and present an enormous period— 14,000 years, according to the archeological material recently excavated and evaluated. The least explored and perhaps the most ancient among these monuments are petroglyphs, dragon-stones and rock-cut structures with stone doors. Researching these monuments it will be possible to reveal their cultural and civilizational continuity in the Armenian Highland.
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A CLUSTER OF BIRD CHERRIES
The daughter of the great Armenian composer, Alexander Afanasyevich Spendiaryan (Spendiarov) (1871-1928), Marina Alexandrovna (1903-1982) was sentenced in 1940 according to the 58th article the Criminal Code of the USSR for an attempted assassination of Stalin. In 1926 she taught English to Stalin’s son, Vasili, for two weeks. For the people who do not know the orders of the Beria NKVD it will be strange to learn that she was not shot, while people who had committed lesser ‘crimes’ were executed. Trying to surmise from logical reasoning the absurdity of the whole thing is obvious. It seems that all attempts to find the reasons for such decisions and any other decisions of the NKVD organisation is as senseless as the search for a logical explanation of the imprisonment of millions of innocent people.
A Cluster of Bird Cherries also has an informative value. First of all Marina’s observations regarding the everyday life of Stalin’s family, the principles of bringing up Vasili, his son and the spiritual state of Nadezhda Alilueva, his wife. Marina was in the terrible camps in Taishet (Ozerlag) and Ukhtizhemlage. There are many names mentioned in the book who passed by on that road and perhaps this publication will help their relatives and friends to learn something about their fate – this is the general, humanistic value of such publications.
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The book is dedicated to the memory of the victims of the genocide of the Armenians in Sumgait which was organized and executed on Soviet Azerbaijani high governmental level from February 27-29, 1988. A month later the author of the book, Armenian writer and publicist Bakur Karapetyan personally visited Sumgait (from March 27-April 5), shot videos of the sites of atrocities, held meetings and interviews with various representatives of the Azerbaijani authorities guilty for the crime against humanity. He met and interviewed also local Armenians and other nationalities who suffered during the inhuman acts of the Azerbaijani slaughterers. The book is based on documentary facts which cast a light upon the reality.
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PROGRESSIVE BRITISH FIGURES’ APPRECIATION OF ARMENIA’S CIVILIZATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE VERSUS THE FALSIFIED “ANCIENT TURKEY” EXHIBIT IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM
The book presents a cultural-spiritual perception of Armenia as the country of the Paradise, Noah’s Ark on Mt. Ararat-Masis and the cradle of civilization by famous British figures. Special attention is paid in the book to the fact that modern British enlightened figures call the UK government to recognize the Armenian Genocide, but this question has been politicized and subjected to the interests of the UK-Turkey relations. Thus it is pushed into genocide denial deadlock, despite the fact that the Parliament of Wales recognized the Armenian Genocide and erected the monument in commemoration of 1,5 million innocent Armenian victims of the Armenian Genocide.
The fact of exhibiting of the archaeological artifacts from ancient sites of the Armenian Highland and Asia Minor in the British Museum’s “Room 54” (wrongly named “Ancient Turkey”) in line with Turkish falsifications of history and historical geography was an example of how the genocide denial policy of Turkey polluted the Britain’s historical-cultural treasury and distorted rational minds and inquisitiveness of many visitors from different countries of the world. Two months after publication of this book, in July 2013 “Ancient Turkey” was renamed into “Anatolia and Urartu”. Despite some changes, historical geography and interpretation of material culture concerning western part of the Armenian Highland again are misrepresented.
There are collections of ancient valuable artifacts and pieces of art from Armenia (Western and Eastern Armenia) and Asia Minor (the Hittite, Greek, Pontic, Cappadocian etc.) in the British Museum, as well as historiographical and cartographic materials on the history of Armenia and Asia Minor in the British Library, as well. Taking into consideration that all these are vivid testimony of the contribution of the Armenian and Asia Minor peoples to ancient civilizational heritage of the world, it is necessary to rename “Anatolia and Urartu” into Ancient Armenia and Ancient Asia Minor.
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BYRON AND THE ARMENIAN REALITY
The present book features a comprehensive and detailed research into the links betweenthe Mechitarists and Byron, considers their scientific collaboration, as well as reflections ofByronism in the Armenian literature. The monograph comprises the detailed research intoByron’s Armenian studies, the poet’s relationship with the Mechitarists as described by foreignauthors.The appendices provide excerpts from Byron’s letters, Thomas Moore’s Letters andJournals of Lord Byron, with notices of his life, the poet’s preface to Armenian-EnglishGrammar, as well as his translations from Armenian.
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IMMORTALITY OF GENIUS
A Book Review by Gayane Hayrapetyan
A.Bekaryan, Bayron and Armenian reality (in Armenian and English), Yerevan, 2013, YSU Press, 403 p.
Armenian Byronist Anahit Bekaryan’s book written with undisguised love and care for every fact of life and work of the great poet of the 19th century, George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) and addressed to both Armenian and English-speaking readers (it would be desirable to see its Russian edition as well) crowns the research of the Armenian cultural figures about the English poet, whose romanticism is as relevant and eternal as eternal are all the great achievements of the human spirit.
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CIVILIZATIONAL CONTRIBUTION OF ARMENIA IN THE HISTORY OF THE SILK ROAD, Erevan, 2012
On November 21-23, 2011 The International Scientific Conference on civilizational contribution of Armenia in the history of the Silk Road was held in Erevan. Papers delivered at conferecne were publishe in 2012.
The system of the cultural values of Armenia has a considerable place in the history of the development of world civilization. In ancient and medieval times Armenia, owing to its strategic position, rich natural resources, military-economic might, high level of artisan productions and town-planning, and particularly, a developed net of trade routs, made a great civilizational contribution to the history of the Silk Road.
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