Archaeology and Etnography2
ON THE ORIGIN OF ROMAN MITHREUMS
In the Hellenistic period and later with the worship of Mithra are closely related the underground or semi-underground sanctuaries which are called mithraeums. As it was generally accepted in special studies, these mithraeums were found only to the west of the Euphrates, not earlier than the III century BC. Through the study of archaeological, ethnographic, written and other sources the author comes to a preliminary conclusion that the western mithraeums were influenced by the Armenian popular house architecture.
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AN ESSAY ABOUT THE THEATRE OF MEDIEVAL ARMENIA (BASED ON ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL MATERIALS OF THE CITY OF DVIN)
Mass performances and laughable acts or images related to them occupied a huge place in the life of a medieval man. In this regard, vessels decorated with mascarons and skeletons of Dvin’s dwarfs are of great interest. The entire composition on the alabastron conveys the literary plot of a parable, saying or riddle, created by the master through the comprehensible repertoire of the jester. During medieval festivities and mass performances ordinary people were often entertained by dwarfs who acted as jesters. They were handy at juggling with knives, rings and apples, singing, dancing and playing the musical instruments. Among them there were acrobats, tamers, people who represented habits, animal screams and behavior. We assume that the identified skeletons of individuals could be histrions at royal and princely courtyards of Dvin. Theatrical and areal performances, as a specific genre of art, closely related to folklore and reflecting reality, have become firmly established in urban life.
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THE ADANA MASSACRE AND THE ARMENIAN-AMERICANS
Due to historical fate, the Armenians, who emigrated to the United States, along with many Armenians living abroad, cherished the hope of repatriation - “Back to the Country!” That is why at the crucial moments for their country the Armenians abroad were always with their people. At the beginning of the last century, in 1909, the American Armenians also, responding to their compatriots’ misery and deprived situation in the aftermath of the Adana massacre, have materially and morally supported them, initiating, at the same time, a pro-Armenian movement within the US and in the American public and government circles by the intra-communal, religious, public, political and all other possible means.
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THE ARMENIAN-HUNGARIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE OTTOMAN BOOK-PRINTING AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 18TH CENTURY
During the first half of the 18th century the Ottoman Empire suffered a period of hard economic and political crisis. Despite serious internal problems with the rule of the sultan Ahmed III begins the westernization of the Empire. The essential role in the internal and foreign policy was reserved for grand vizier Ibrahim pasha Nevshehirli (1718-1730), Armenian by origins. The personality of grand vizier had some effect on the Ottoman history of that period. Ibrahim pasha seems not to succeed in his economic policy, but he greatly participated in the flourishing of the Ottoman culture. In 1725 there was created a special commission which began to translate the works of Arab and Persian historians into the Turkish language.
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FIRST HAYKIDES AND THE «HOUSE OF TORGOM»
The article deals with one of the crucial problems of the early Armenian history - “Torgomian“ hypothesis. According to it, Hayk, the forefather of Armenians, was son of Torgom, who, after leaving Babylonia with his kinsmen and defeating Bel, its king, began to settle down in different parts of Armenia. Attempts to prove or deny the historicity of this story told by Movses Khorenatsi, did not advance much.
Evidently, the story of Hayk and his descendants is built according to the Biblical model. The First Haykides are regarded as forefathers who began and finished the Armenization of the Armenian Highland, although it seems that this model hides another historical process. Trying to show that during the Haykides, era a considerable part of the Highland was already Armenian, he had included in the Haykides, genealogical tree representatives of several political entities (probably, also non-Armenian speaking components) and representing contemporary events in different chronological secions as well.
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THE ARMENIAN QUESTION AT THE MEETING OF AMBASSADORS OF THE GREAT POWERS IN CONSTANTINOPLE: THE YENI-KÖY NEGOTIATIONS
In June 1913, due to the efforts of Russia was convened a conference in Yeni-köy, Constantinople, in order to discuss the issue of Armenian reforms. Participants of the conference represent the embassies of Great Powers - Russia, Germany, England, France, Italy, Austro-Hungary. Yeni-köy's negotiations turned into fruitless debates as a result of German, Austrian-Hungarian and Italian outright denial of the Mandelstam project, the two-way behavior of England and France and the Turkish government's policy of overthrowing the Armenian reforms.
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THE PROBLEM OF ILLEGAL CIRCULATION OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA (1918-1920)
Illegal circulation of arms and ammunition was one of the main factors which destabilized the criminogenic situation in the Republic of Armenia (1918-1920) threatening the state and social security, leading to the expansion of murder, robbery, and political retribution. In the unfavorable economic and political situation of the Republic of Armenia, despite some successes, the Ministry of the Interior had failed to act productively against the illegal circulation of weapons and ammunition due to a number of causes - the lack of professionals, segmentation of the society, strained relations between the local population and numerous refugees from Western Armenia, the supply of weapons and ammunition from Azerbaijan and Turkey for the muslim population residing in Armenia, apolitical activites of Bolsheviks, etc.
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Political Sciences and Informational Security2
MYSTERY OF DARDANELLE OR THE TURKISH “BLACK HOLE” OF THE STRATEGIC PR
In the article are presented passages from the memories of Vehib Pasha, the Turkish military-political figure of the World War I, and his evaluations on the events related to the knots of the world’s political game of the “Turkish waterways”.
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THE NATIONAL IDEOLOGY OF MAGHAKIA ORMANYAN
At the core of the national ideology of prominent Armenian theologian, philosopher, jurist, diplomat, educator Maghakia Ormanyan (1841-1918) are his historical-philosophical, political, ecclesiastical, constitutional-legal concepts, which are reflected in the works of great thinker. The scientific outlook, national thinking, as well as political, civic, and religious orientations of Ormanyan gain meaning by his liberal-minded conservatism. For this reason, he has been praised as a liberal and progressive revolutionary or criticized as a traditionalist conservative and anti-revolutionary. The ambiguity of this assessment is compounded by Ormanyan's national ideology, the key of which is the Armenian-Homeland relationship, with their unbreakable unity and the idea of the nation's political self-determination.
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Foreign Sources and Authors About Armenia and Armenians1
THE VALLEY OF THE UPPER EUPHRATES RIVER AND ITS PEOPLE
Ellsworth Huntington (1876 –1947) was a professor of geography at Yale University during the early 20th century, known for his studies on environmental determinism/climatic determinism, economic growth and economic geography. He served as President of the Ecological Society of America in 1917, the Association of American Geographers in 1923 and President of the Board of Directors of the Society for Biodemography and Social Biology from 1934 to 1938. E.Huntington participated in several geographical expeditions to Central Asia, Palestine, travelled in different regions of Western Armenia and Asia Minor.
The article published in the «Bulletin of the American Geographical Society» is devoted to the physical-geographical and climatic characteristics of the vilayet of Harput (Armenian Kharberd), as well as discusses briefly the mode of life of its population.
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Documents: Armenian Genocide1
DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF MAGNETOELASTICITY IN ARMENIA
In the article is made an attempt to present one of the fields of hard sciences which has reached a fairly high level in Armenia, particularly the influence of the electromagnetic fields on the dynamic phenomena carried out in the deformable media. Also some new studies dealing with the theory of magnetoelasticity carried out in Armenia are discussed.
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Classics of Armenology2
M. Abeghyan was one of the classics of Armenian philology. His fundamental studies devoted to Armenian literature, language, lexicography and oral tradition paved way for the development of different areas of modern Armenian scholarship.
M. Abeghyan was born in March 17, 1965, in the village of Tazakend, near Astapat (in modern Nakhijevan), famous for its monastery of St. Stepanos (Karmirvank). After a brief study at the newly opened school of Astapat in 1876 he was selected to continue his further education at the Gevorgyan seminary in Echmiatsin. After graduating the seminary with in 1887 M.Abeghyan was appointed as a teacher at the school in Shushi, Karabagh where he works for two years.
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M.-F.Brosset was a prominent orientalist whose studies were devoted also to different problems of Armenology.
Brosset studied classical and oriental languages (Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, Chinese), first in the theological seminary at Orleans then at the College de France. But soon after, from 1826 onwards Brosset switched on two other oriental languages and cultures and fully devoted himself to Armenian and Georgian languages, history and culture.
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CIVILIZATIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF ARMENIA AND MODERN CHALLENGES
Yerevan, “Gitutyun” publishing house, 2019, 240 p. + 9 p. pictures and maps.
This book which is written on a vast array of primary and secondary sources, is an overview of the long history of Armenian civilization. It focuses on three crucial aspects of that extraordinary civilization: 1 - Where, when and how it originated in the ancient Armenian Highland; 2 - The fundamental characteristics of Armenian civilization as shown particularly in the time of Tigranes the Great and in subsequent centuries; 3 - How this civilization became enmeshed in the Turkish state machine in the modern era, culminating in the horrific Genocide of 1915-22.
CILICIAN ARMENIA IN THE PERCEPTIONS OF ADJACENT POLITICAL ENTITIES (HISTORICAL-PHILOLOGICAL ESSAYS)
Bozoyan A.A. (Editor), Ter-Ghevondian V.A., Shukurov R.M., Danielyan G.G., Yerevan, “Gitutyun” Publishing house. NAS RA, 2019, 282 p.
One of the most important achievements in Armenology is over two hundred years of multilateral study of Cilician Armenian history. The main sources, first brought out by the efforts of M. Chamchian, É. Dularurie, V. Langlois, Ł. Ališan, Gr. Mikaelyan, S. Bornazian and others, created discussion on the turning points of Cilicia’s internal and foreign policy. Scholars began comparing information in the official Cilician historiography with that of Byzantine, Latin, Syriac, Arab and Persian sources. The history of Cilician Armenia was being discussed more frequently within the broad context of world history.
The present collection includes the results of scholarly research conducted in 2013-2015 within the framework of the project “Cilician Armenia in the Perception of the Adjacent Political Entities (12th - 13th cent.)”.
The book consists of three parts. The first part is dedicated to the analysis of the Byzantine sources (A. Bozoyan); in the second part R. Shukurov reveals the data of the Seljuqid Persian sources relating to contacts between the Iconium Sultanate and the Cilician Armenian State, while V. Ter-Ghevondian and G. Danielyan deal with the ruling house of the Cilician kingdom and the peculiarities of perception of that state’s civil and ecclesial heads in major Near Eastern documents.
ACTIVITIES OF THE RED CROSS SOCIETY OF ARMENIA IN 1920-1930 (COLLECTION OF DOCUMENTS)
Yerevan, The Institute of History of NAS RA, 2018, 408 p.
The documents in the collection cover the humanitarian activities of the Red Cross in Armenia in 1920s and 1930s. The book presents the relations between the authorities of Soviet Armenia and the Armenian Red Cross’s broad branches, as well as the partnership with Amercom (American Committee for Relief in the Near East, ACRNE), Anglcom (English Committee for Relief in Armenia) and the Committee of Aid to Armenia (HOC). The overwhelming majority of the documents are being published the first time.
THE PARLIAMENT OF THE FIRST REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
Yerevan, 2018, National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia, 144 p. (in Arm.)
The book presents the history of the First Parliament of the First Republic of Armenia (1918-1920), the press reports dealing with its first sessions, the Rules of Procedure, the Law on Elections, Names of the Members of Parliament, the biographies of Parliament Speakers and women MPs.
JOURNAL OF ART STUDIES
2019, N 1, “Gitutyun” Publishing House of the NAS RA, 248 p. (in Arm.)
The Journal of Art Studies is the first Armenian academic journal aimed on the study of different fundamental and aspects of Armenian art, from antiquity until the modern period (architecture and arts, the theory of art criticism, cultural relations between Armenia and other countries). Besides articles the Journal includes discussions, publications, reviews, latest events in the field of art.
MUSTAFA KEMAL: THE STRUGGLE AGAINST REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA (1919-1921)
Yerevan, Tir Publishing House, 2019, 140 p. (in Armenian)
The monograph is devoted to the analysis of the leading role of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, being at the head of the nationalist movement in Turkey in 1919-23, in the war against the Republic of Armenia in September - November 1920.
The book is based on the wide use of Turkish primary sources. Translations of some of them into Armenian are contained in the “Turkish Documents” section of the book.
HOMELAND-DIASPORA RELATIONS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21TH CENTURY (2001-2017)
Yerevan, Yerevan State University Press, 2018 (in Armenian), 446p.
Based on the widely available literature and primary sources, an attempt has been made to fill the gap in the study of the Homeland-Diaspora relations at the beginning of the 21th century. In the monograph, the relations between the Republic of Armenia and Diaspora are analyzed in almost all spheres of public-political and socio-economic life and relevant conclusions have been made.
This study will be a help to have a complete picture on strengthening and developing of the Homeland-Diaspora relations and ties since the independence of Armenia in 1991.
THE SOCIAL-POLITICAL LIFE OF WESTERN ARMENIANS IN 1917-1918. THE DEFENSE OF ERZERUM AND THE REASONS FOR THE FALL IN 1918
Zangak Publishing House, Yerevan, 2019 (in Armenian), 248p.
The monograph deals with social-political life of Western Armenians in 1917-1918, particularly the problem of the defence and causes of the fall of Erzerum, under the light of the the policy of Transcaucasian governments (Commissariat and Seim), Armenian national organizations, poilitical parties and individuals. The author had made use of all available primary sources, mostly archival documents.
STRUGGLE FOR BAKU (NOVEMBER 1917-APRIL 1918)
(in Russian), Zangak Publishing House, Yerevan, 2019, 218p.
One of the key targets of the massive anti-Armenian propaganda by the authorities of the modern Republic of Azerbaijan is the events in Baku which took place in March 1918. The goal of the monograph, first and foremost, is a complete reconstruction of military-political events in Baku during this period, and to highlight the interrelated and specific nature of several developments simultaneously occurring within this process as well as.