THE CONTRIBUTION OF D. M. LANG TO THE APPRECIATION OF ARMENIA’S CIVILIZATIONAL HERITAGE
The British Professor David Marshall Lang (1924-1991) occupies a distinct place among the Armenologists, Orientalists and Caucasiologists, dealing with the appreciation of Armenia’s civilizational heritage, having authored a number of books - “The Armenians” (1976), “Armenia: Cradle of Civilization” (1970, 1978), “The Peoples of the Hill: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus” (1988). Among them the most significant is “Armenia: Cradle of Civilization”. A specific feature of civilizational history is the category of cultural continuity, as follows from Lang’s concept. Having highly appreciated the civilizational significance of Armenia, D. Lang wrote: “The ancient land of Armenia is situated in the high mountains... Although Mesopotamia with its ancient civilizations of Sumeria and Babylon, is usually considered together with Egypt as the main source of civilized life in the modern sense, Armenia too has a claim to rank as one of the cradles of human culture. To begin with, Noah's Ark is stated in the Book of Genesis to have landed on the summit of Mount Ararat, in the very centre of Armenia.... Armenia has a claim on our attention as one of the principal homes of ancient metallurgy, beginning at least five thousand years ago. Later on, Armenia became the first extensive kingdom to adopt Christianity as a state religion pioneering a style of Church architecture which anticipates our own Western Gothic”.
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THE SOUTH-WESTERN REGION OF THE ARMENIAN HIGHLAND WITHIN THE HITTITE STATE
One of the important Hittite eastern region was Tegarama. The first information about Tegarama appeared in the “Cappadocian tablets” of Kanes (Nesa) (20th-18th centuries BC). The city had trade relations with a lot of settlements of the region. In the sources of Kanes Tegarama is mentioned as a settlement, but in the Hittite sources it is mentioned both as a country and as a city. Tegarama was also one of the important religious centers of Hatti. Thus, by comparing the “Cappadocian”, Hittite and Assyrian sources the majority of researchers located Tegarama in the territory of the present settlement Gürün. Tegarama also occupied a strategically important position. From here routes led to the western districts of the Armenian Highland, Northern Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. Later in most of the territory of the Land of Tegarama the kingdom of Melid emerged (one of the so-called Neo-Hittite states). The city-state of Melid formed part of the Land of Tegarama in the 2nd millennium BC and was one of the most important eastern keypoints of the Hittite Kingdom. This city acquired larger importance after the fall of the Hittite Kingdom. It was near the Melas River, a tributary of the Upper Euphrates.
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TAIK IN THE ASSYRIAN AND BIAINIAN CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS, ANCIENT GREEK AND EARLY MEDIEVAL ARMENIAN SOURCES (THE INTERPRETATIONS OF THE 19th CENTURY FRENCH ARMENOLOGISTS)
Saint-Martin and Marie Brosset gave importance to the fact that Taik was one of Armenia’s provinces from the ancient times when studying the historical and political geography of Armenia in their researches and translations of the Armenian medieval sources. They paid special attention to the geographical characteristics of the Taik province of Great Armenia, based on the information of the medieval sources (especially “Ashkharatsuyts”) as well as the works of M.Chamchyan and Gh. Inchichyan. The Assyrian and Biainian cuneiform inscriptions as well as the ancient and medieval sources have preserved evidences about Tayk.
The historical and geographic data of Armenian medieval sources give evidence to great importance of the province of Taik (in ancient times։ Daiaeni of the Assyrian and Diau(e) of the Biainian cuneiform sources) in the Armenian political and cultural history because of its strategic position and deep-rooted statehood traditions in the Armenian Highland.
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THE ARMENIAN QUESTION AT THE PRESENT STAGE AND TURKISH FALSIFICATIONS
Various characterizations are being made on the Armenian Question. Thus, for example, it is noted that the Armenian Question has gone through alterations at the present stage and is regarded as a matter of recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide. According to another approach, the Armenian Question has two phases; the first one is the stage of recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide and the second, the elimination of the genocide consequences, that is to say, the stage of the territorial demands. The adherents of this standpoint urge that Armenians should make all their efforts to overcome successfully the first stage, namely to deal solely with recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide and only then, after the successful end of this struggle, to turn to the issue on elimination of the genocide consequences. It is important to note that now, as in the past, the Armenian Question has not lost its traditional perception and stands out as the realization of the right of the Armenian people to living and having statehood in the Western and Eastern parts of its historical cradle, Armenia. Thus, the recognition of the Armenian Genocide is a part of the Armenian Question, but it doesn’t substitute the very problem and should not be considered as the first stage of the stepwise solution of the Armenian Question. There is a need to struggle simultaneously for recognition and condemnation of the Armenian Genocide and the elimination of its consequences as well as for the fair solution of the Armenian Question.
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THE HEADS OF SMYRNA’S TERUNI DIOCESE
The restoration of the Official List of the heads of the diocese of Smyrna is closely related to the history of Ejmiatsin teruni (belonging to Ejmiatsin) diocese as a religious institution which had a historical significance of preserving Armenian national values. The study of the Official List of the heads of the diocese of Smyrna takes its beginning in the researches of eminent scholars A. Alpoyachyan and Bishop T. Palyan . We launch the List of the heads of the diocese of Smyrna with a quite different from each other order and dating, discussing them separately. First, we have to note that the said List of Trdat Palyan begins with the name of Vardapet (Archimandrite) Hovsep, starting from the year 1689; and A. Alpoyachyan does it with the head, mentioned long before that.
Due to the nationwide authority of Smyrna’s Patriarchal Diocese, five of its heads were elected All Armenian Catholicoses in the period of 1737-1801, Ghazar Jahketsi (1737), Alexander Byuzandatsi (of Byzantium) Garagash (1753), Sahak Ahagin (Huge) (1756, he resigned of patriarchdom), Ghukas Karnetsi (of Karin) (1780) and Danyel Surmaretsi (of Surmary) (1801).
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THE HUMANITARIAN TREATMENT OF THE ARABS TOWARDS THE WESTERN ARMENIAN SURVIVORS OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE ACCORDING TO THE TESTIMONIES OF THE EYEWITNESS SURVIVORS
The eyewitness survivors of the Armenian Genocide (1915-1923), who, for the most part are no longer alive presently, narrated in every detail, during my recordings, the historico-political circumstances of the first genocide perpetrated in the 20th century.
Except the Armenian eyewitness survivors, in 1999, the facts about the Armenian Genocide are testified also by the Arab desert inhabitants.
Both in the Syrian deserts and in the territory of Turkey, thanks to the kind Arab Bedouins, numerous generations of Armenians exist up to the present day, having lost their mother tongue, changed their names and even apostatized; nevertheless, they still remember the national identity of their ancestors.
Following the Armenian Genocide, in the years 1915-1923, thousands of homeless and motherland-deprived miserable Armenians have found a warm, hospitable treatment by the governments of Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt, etc.). Taking advantage of that hospitable behavior, hundreds of thousands of Armenians have started a new life in those countries.
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THE ARMENIAN COMMUNITY OF EGYPT (from its origins till 1922)
The Armenian community in Egypt, particularly, during the last historiical periods, has achieved remarkable successes in the diverse spheres of the state-political, social-economic and the spiritual-cultural life of the country thanks to the favorable attitude that prevailed in the country towards the Armenians.
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THE ARMENIAN LEGION (1916-1920)
The First World War remained and will remain in the memory of generations as an unprecedented cataclysm not only for its calamities and catastrophic consequences but also for the most horrendous crime – the Armenian Genocide – the 20th century's first mass ethnic extermination and expulsion. The crime, which can never be condoned and which became possible to commit in conditions of taking advantage of the confrontation of the Great Powers. The Allied (Entente) Powers – France, Great Britain and Russia -- were the first to condemn the Armenian Genocide in their Joint Declaration (May 24, 1915): “... new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization…”
Different segments of the Armenian people witnessing indescribable scenes of rampant carnage and sufferings of their compatriots and regarding atrocious acts of brutality as sufficient grounds for taking revenge to punish the evildoer for hitherto unheard-of anguish, threw themselves into a fight against the infamous enemy. Tens of thousands of Armenians fought within Russian, British and French armies. Already in 1914 volunteer troops largely comprised of Western and Eastern Armenians had been formed on the initiative of the Armenian national parties and fought within the Russian Army showing great valour on the battlefield. Famous for glorious victories, outstanding and skillfully conducted military operations, and, alas, accompanied by tragic events, the Eastern or Armenian Legion has its own place in the history of the Armenian voluntary movement. The vast majority of the soldiers in the Legion were Armenians, so, first it was called the Eastern and later Armenian Legion.
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THE CONTRIBUTION OF RUBEN GASPARYAN TO THE FIELD OF RESEARCH OF THE CILICIAN ARMENIANS’ HISTORY (THE END OF THE 19TH AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY)
The frames of scientific interests of Ruben Gasparyan included mainly the Cilicia’s history from the end of the 19th c. to the early 20s of the 20th c. He paid a special attention to the social-economic, national-liberation, educational and other basic issues of the Cilician Armenians. The scholar published special articles and documents on the mentioned themes.
The scientific investigations of Ruben Gasparyan are important contribution both for the study of the history of the Cilician Armenians of the period of the Armenian Genocide and for the Armenian Cause and the Armenian territorial demands (Western Armenia and Cilician Armenia).
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Historical Geography and Cartography2
FOOTNOTE COMMENTARIES TO THE CHAPTER ON GREAT ARMENIA IN CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY'S GEOGRAPHY
The Geography - ΓΕΩΓΡΑΦΙΚΗ ΥΦΗΓΗΣΙΣ - is an important work of a mathematican, astronomer, geographer and cartographer, Claudius Ptolemy (83-161 AD) written in Greek. It contains a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the ancient world of the classical period, including the description of Great Armenia and its borders in detail. Later, in the early Middle Ages it served as an important source for the “World Atlas” – “Ashkharhatsoyts” by Movses Khorenatsi (the 5th) and the continuer of his work, Anani Shirakatsi (7th entury).
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GENOCIDE OF HISTORICAL LANDSCAPE AND CULTURE OF WESTERN ARMENIA
Reflections on the tour to Western Armenia
When making a pilgrimage in Western Armenia, a considerable part of the way to Aghtamar island is passing through the historic province of Kars and neighboring territories, the substantial parts of which, with the Ararat-Masis summit, are territories, annexed from Eastern Armenia by the unlawful treaties of Moscow (March 16) and Kars (October 16), concluded between the Bolshevik authorities and Kemalist Turkey in 1921.
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MULTIDISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION OF IDENTITY OF THE “ARENI” GRAPE VARIETY
Having centuries-old tradition in viticulture and winemaking Armenia characterized with high ampelographic diversity of grape local autochthonous and modern cultivars. Meantime, the world’s earliest known wine-making facility has been discovered during the excavation of Areni-1 cave dating back to 6000 years (the beginning of the 4th Millennium BC). In parallel, among huge diversity of wine grapes the so called “Areni” variety is one of the most famous, used for red wine production by majority of the winemaking companies and local farms nowadays. A combination of genetic, ampelographic and archaeological data allows us to come to preliminary conclusion that as a true to type “Sev (Black) Areni” variety can be considered the one which is growing in old “Vankapatkan” vineyards of Vayots Dzor and in grape collection of the Scientific Center of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Wine-making in Armenia (accession N42). The “Seyrak Areni” (70) should not be considered as a synonym of “Sev (Black) Areni”. In this study the authors tried to highlight also the importance of combination of the generated data from ancient and modern grape multidisciplinary investigations.
MANIFESTATIONS OF MYTHOLOGICAL IMAGES ON ANCIENT ARMENIAN COINS
Mythological images on ancient coins were intended to emphasize the majesty and power of producing them ruler, and therefore depicted mostly the supreme god, the goddess of victory, the mother goddess, animals symbolizing the royal power. The presence of mythological themes on coins basically had a number of representations, among which especially significant are the idea of the divine origin of the royal dynasty, the protection of king’s activities by gods, and many other ideas characteristic for the mythological thinking in ancient societies. In ancient Armenia, as in other countries of the Ancient World, the money circulation passed through different stages, and mythological images and themes always accompanied the images of kings, giving a special shade to the iconography of coins.
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Philosophy and Law2
ТHE BASIC CONCEPTS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LOGIC
The idea of the foundation of transformational logic first was fixed by the author in 1976. Transfor-mational logic is a science studying the relationship between explicit and implicit forms and structures of thought, the essence of subtextual and contextual forms and struc¬tures of thought, the means and rules by which implicit forms and structures of thought are generated from the explicit forms and structures, as well as forms and struc¬tures of thought are made precise.
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GENOCIDE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW
THE Crimes of Crimes.
1.Origins of the legal prohibition of genocide.
This study is principally concerned with genocide as a legal norm. Genocide almost invariablyescaped prosecution because it was virtually always committed, at the behest and with the complicity of those in power. In human history, the concept of international legal norms from which no State may derogate has emerged only relatively recently. This is, of course, the story of the international protection of human rights. The wartime atrocities committed against the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire had been met with a joint declaration from the governments of France, Great Britain and Russia, dated 24 May 1915.
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Demography and Governance2
THE DEMOGRAPHIC MOVEMENTS OBSERVED IN AKHALKALAK DISTRICT IN THE LAST DECADES OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY
In the 1880s one of the peculiar features of the demographic development of Transcaucasia and the districts of Akhaltskha and Akhalkalak was the drastic increase in the number of the Armenian population in the cities. This was primarily due to the rise and devel¬opment of market relations. Gradually more and more Armenian mer¬chants, craftsmen, and entrepreneurs moved to the cities, where great opportunities awaited them. This was particularly obvious in the provinces of Tiflis, Yelizavetpol, and Baku. In the thirty years following 1894, the growth of the Armenians constituted more than 50 %; the Russian population increased for five times, and the Georgians for more than 6 times. The point is that during that period, gradually more and more Russian and Georgian officials were appoint¬ed in the district authorities, while the region was always predominant¬ly Armenian-populated.
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MIKAYEL NALBANDYAN ON PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
A prominent representative of the Armenian social-political thought is Mikayel Nalbandyan, a poet, writer, literary critic, publicist, and revolutionary-democrat. His rich literary and public heritage has been studied, literarily criticized, and appreciated in a number of literary, historical, philosophical, and economic studies.
As a broad thinker and a supporter of promoting Armenian national issues, M. Nalbandyan especially emphasized economic problems within the broader issues. This is why he has prioritized economic development in his works and developed advanced concepts in this regard, which later on have become research topics for the economists.
The aim of M.Nalbandyan’s work, according to the author, “is only to make the nation think about its future,” that is why, in his own words, there is a need for “preaching the economic issue, preaching the human being, preaching the nation…” as the main pillars for the establishment and development of statehood. M.Nalbandyan’s views on public administration are really “supportive directives” for the strengthening and development of the current Armenian statehood.
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Political Science and Informational Security3
NAKHIJEVAN - A VICTIM OF GENOCIDE (NOT AREA BUT HOMELAND)
The genocide was committed in Nakhijevan before the eyes of all the generations of the Soviet period. The last several thousands of Nakhijevani Armenians were deported in 1991. And the last thousands of sacred khachkars were smashed into pieces and taken out in open railway wagons in the beginning of the third millennium. I will repeat myself: khachkars - masterpieces of small architecture, first and foremost are tombstones, beneath which lie the remains of the ancestors of Armenians, the ancestors of geniuses like Komitas and Aram Khachaturian and many thousands of talented Nakhijevani Armenians. I think very few people know that in this sacred place for Armenians the Azerbaijani barbarians have now established a military training ground, a combat firing range. Article 1 of the Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to Crimes Against Humanity begins with a loud line: ”No statutory limitation shall apply to the crimes, irrespective of the date of their commission.” It is important that numerous logically verified provisions of the UN General Assembly’ Convention “do not provide for any exception in any case.” This means that, pursuant to Articles VIII and IX of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Armenia, i.e. the National Assembly, in accordance with the provisions of the UN Charter, shall have the right to apply to the United Nations with the lawful claim to “take all necessary measures”. And this implies that, in accordance with the said Article IX, “the disputes shall be submitted to the International Court of Justice”. It should be emphasized that in the case of Nakhijevan, “attempt to commit genocide and complicity in genocide” shall be punishable.
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THE METHODS AND MECHANISMS OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE DENIAL IN MODERN TURKEY
The Turkish denialism was launched in parallel with the Armenian Genocide. It was developed as a state policy from the very outset and obtained new shapes during the time. As the American genocide scholar Henry Huttenbach describes, the genocide denial presents “the institutionalized denialism” . As Donald Bloxham asserts, the denialism is a vital instrument for formation of the Turkish national identity through making legends on the origin of modern Turkey. The new tactics, adopted by Turkey, can be characterized as “sprawling” denialism, which is more dangerous than the overt denial, since it may create seemingly an illusion of the intention to achieve the “objective” appraisements.
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IRANIAN STUDIES PUBLISHED IN BRITAIN AND THE USA, FRENCH TRANSLATION OF “ASHKHARHATSUYTS” AND THE ARMENIAN LAPIDARY HERITAGE OF ARTSAKH VERSUS AZERBAIJANI FALSIFICATIONS
In the world of science it is accepted to talk about achievements in regard to new discoveries. But, in artificially-formed Azerbaijan with each new round of the falsification of history and historical geography the incapacity of bellicose ignorance is revealed more and more. For the lack of their own source-based history the newly-fledged Azerbaijani pseudo-researchers have this time selected as objects of falsifications some English-language works of Iranian Studies, “Ashkharhatsouyts” - The Armenian Geographic Atlas (the 5th - 7th cc.) translated from Old Armenian into French by Jean Antoine de Saint-Martin and the unpublished collection, “The Inscriptions of Gandzasar and Havotsptouk” by Hovsep (Iosif) A. Orbeli.
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Arts and Architecture6
TRANSFIGURATION AND THE FEAST OF VARDAVAR
Mashtotsyan Matenadaran serial publication, “MAGALAT” publishing house, Yerevan, 2006, 57 pages
Traditional Churches celebrate the feast of Transfiguration on August 6. Originally, the Armenian Church also celebrated this feast on August 6, and in the Synaxary, which represents the feasts and saints’ commemoration days of the Church, the Transfiguration is mentioned on August 6. However, beginning from the 5th-6th centuries, the feast of Transfiguration underwent two major changes. It was also called Vardavar and instead of being celebrated on August 6, it began to be celebrated on the 14 Sunday subsequent to the Easter, i.e. 98 days after the Easter. Therefore, being related with the Easter it has mobility of 35 days and is celebrated between June 28 and August 1.
Vardavar is one of the five major feasts of the Armenian Church. The Armenian Church destined three days for the feast of Transfiguration or Vardavar. On Saturday, after the vespers, the eve of the feast is celebrated, thus announcing the beginning of the feast, because according to the Church calendar, the day begins after the vespers. For this reason, the feast of Transfiguration begins after the Saturday vespers.
The term Vardavar is composed of the words “vard” (rose) and “var” (bright), therefore, Vardavar means brightness of a rose or a bright, shining rose. This ancient feast that keeps the memory of the Flood, has got a new Christian reinterpretation and is related to the Transfiguration of Christ in the following way.
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TURNER – AIVAZOVSKY. AN AUSPICIOUS ENCOUNTER
Aivazovasky (1817-1900) left nearly 6000 works – accounting for more than 100 exhibitions all over Eurpope and the USA. A master painter, Aivazovasky was celebrated as the “marine poet” of his time, the 19th century.
Turner at 67, the acknowledged master of the day of landscapes and marine paintings, was literally overhelmed. The art of the young marine painter Aivazovasky inspired the venerable master to write a poem, in Italian. Turner versified throughout his entire creative life. He accompanied his sketches and paintings mostly with his own verses. Ararat is the perennial symbol of Armenia and Aivazovasky depicted the Ararat landscape.
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EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE OF ARMENIA
The period from the 4th to the 7th centuries was the most remarkable time in the history of Armenian architecture. It was marked by Armenia’s adoption of Christianity in 301 as a state religion. Speaking about any national architectural school in the Middle Ages, its typological identity should be regarded as the basic criterion: even a single new type of religious building was a great creative success for a given country’s architects, particularly in early Christian Armenia, whose architects produced several new original compositions of monumental structures, making a valuable contribution to the treasure-trove of world architecture.
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“THE CONCERT PRELUDE” OF THE COMPOSER ALEXANDER SPENDIARYAN AS A GENUINE COMMENCEMENT OF THE CREATIVE ACTIVITIES
The creative and aesthetic visions of Spendiaryan were formed and developed in 1896-1900 in the Petersburg warm musical atmosphere under the influence of Rimski-Korsakov's realistic school; certain principles and a taste took roots.
The serious symphonic compositions such as “Menuet” and “Concert Prelude” were created during those years. These compositions along with the romance «Eastern Melody» («Ah, Rose»), already beloved and popular, brought the author fame, heralding the entry of the composer Spendiaryan into the world of the professional composers' art.
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HAMO BEKNAZARYAN’S PEPO IN THE UNITED STATES
There were very few miracles in the history of Armenian cinema. One of them was that some films “broke away” from the Soviet iron curtain and had some international exposure.
The premiere of the first Armenian sound film, Hamo Beknazaryan’s Pepo, on June 15, 1935, marked the beginning of its triumphal march—without hyperbole—through the movie theaters of the Soviet Union, as well of a number of countries. Pepo was based on the homonymous play written by Gabriel Sundukyan, a classic name of Armenian playwriting, in 1876. its Armenian ethnographic features and the social context, it was understandable and acceptable to the international audience; thus, it gained international recognition and came to represent Armenian culture abroad.
Pepo crossed the ocean almost immediately after its premiere, in the fall of 1935, and was featured in the big cities of the eastern and western coasts of the United States.
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THE ARMENIANS IN WORLD CHOREOGRAPHY
Yerevan, ”Hayastan,” 2016, 376 pages (in Armenian)
The book presents information about more than 740 Armenian dance professionals-performers, choreographers, and teachers, as well as composers who have worked in about 40 countries, from the beginning of the 19th century till today.
The first chapters present the pre-history of Armenian stage dance and ballet, dating from the 19th century, when Armenians first encountered ballet art and performed choreographies.
The last chapter of the book presents Armenian representatives of Middle Eastern dance, more popularly known as Oriental or belly dance, from all over the world.
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Philology and Literature3
THE POSSIBILITY OF CLARIFICATION OF THE PERIOD OF SOME PHONETICAL CHANGES IN THE ARMENIAN LANGUAGE BY MEANS OF THE VAN (ARARAT-URARTU) CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS
The language of the cuneiform inscriptions of Van (Urartian) was the official written language of the Van Kingdom (Urartu). According to our opinion, the Armenian language is the basis of it and it contains a great number of Armenian word roots, morphemes (either native or of unknown origin) and Armenian names. The cuneiform inscriptions of Van date back to the 9-7th centuries B.C.; namely, they are older by 1000-1300 years compared with the first written texts of the Old Armenian language (Grabar). Needless to say, they may contain properties, inherent to the Armenian phonetic system of the time in question. Consequently, the comparison of the sounds of the Old Armenian language (further: OArm.) with those of the Biainian/Urartian becomes important, making possible to clarify the period of some historical phonetic changes of Armenian and to explain the status of the Armenian’s appropriate sounds more than 1000 years earlier of those evidenced in Grabar.
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THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPT: CODICOLOGY, PALEOGRAPHY, AND BEYOND
The term “archaeology of the book” has become a catch phrase to describe the study of manuscripts as physical objects independent of their texts. It encompasses a number of sub-disciplines: codicology, paleography, binding technique, but also writing surface and method of illustration.
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THE “ENCYCLICAL LETTER” BY NERSES THE GRACEFUL AS A SOURCE FOR STUDYING THE HISTORY OF EVERYDAY LIFE AND SOCIAL RELATIONS IN THE 12TH CENTURY
In the 11th century an Armenian powerful state was formed in Cilicia becoming the political, religious and cultural center of the Armenians during the 11th up to 14th centuries. Close political and economic ties with the crusaders were established, promoting to the deepening of Armenian-European relations. From the other hand Byzantine Emperors were striving to restore Church Unity hoping to obtain political unity and thereby to strengthen the position of the Empire.
Nerses the Graceful, the Catholicos of All Armenians (the seat in Hromkla) in Cilicia, was one of the most prominent figures of the ecclesiastical and political life of the 12th century. He was born in about 1101 and descended from the Pahlavuni patrician family. Nerses received his education in Karmir Vank (Red monastery) located on of the famous Black Mountain in Cilicia. At the age of 16 he was ordained a priest. From 1166 until his death 1173 he was the Catholicos of the Armenians. Nerses the Graceful is notable for his literary legacy and ecumenical activity. He has various writings: Letters, Theological, Liturgical, Pedagogical works, Commentaries, Poems, Prayers and Hymns. He started to participate actively in the ecumenical events when he was a bishop, assisting his elder brother Grigoris Pahlavuni the Catholicos of the Armenians.
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Documents: Armenian Genocide13
COLLECTION OF PAPERS RELATING TO THE ARMENIAN DISTRICT OF NAKHIJEVAN (1918-1920) FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF ARMENIA
Article presents collection of papers relating to the Armenian district of Nakhijevan (1918-1920) from the U.S. department of state and the National Archives of Armenia.
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STORY OF THE MASSACRE TOLD BY AN EYE-WITNESS (EDGEFIELD ADVERTISER)
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REPORT CHRISTIANS IN PERIL IN TURKEY (NEW YORK TIMES)
CHRISTIANS IN GREAT PERIL (NEW YORK TIMES)
APPEAL TO TURKEY TO STOP MASSACRES (NEW YORK TIMES)
SEEKS AID FOR ARMENIANS (SAINT PAUL PIONEER PRESS AND SAINT PAUL DISPATCH)
ARMENIANS MASSACRED (RICHMOND TIMES DISPATCH)
ALLIES TO PUNISH TURKS WHO MURDER (NEW YORK TIMES)
BRYCE ASKS TO AID ARMENIA (NEW YORK TIMES)
AMERICANS WILLING TO ASSIST ARMENIANS (DULUTH HERALD)
SLAY ALL ARMENIANS IN CITY OF KERASUNT (NEW YORK TIMES)
DEBT OF CIVILIZATION TO ARMENIA, EVENING PUBLIC LEDGER. (PHILADELPHIA)
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Books and Book Reviews10
THE EPOCH OF MOVSES KHORENATSI
Yerevan, 2007, 410 pages.
The monograph is devoted to the life and the epoch of the founder of the Armenian historiography Movses Khorenatsi and his “History of Armenia”. To think that Movses Khorenatsi is an author of the 7th-9tb centuries means to remove him to a period and an environment which are much more incoherent to his Weltanschauung, geographical notions, political and religious perceptions, and unique language and style, than a number of more or less serious anachronisms, which are completely rejected in this book. Movses Khorenatsi is undoubtedly an author of the 5th century and his classical “History of Armenia” is a product of that exceptionally fateful period of the historical biography of the Armenian people.
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HISTORICAL–SPIRITUAL SYSTEM OF MOVSES KHORENATSI’S «THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA» AND THE BIBLE
Arch. Mesrob Ashjian Book Series 72, Yerevan, 2011, 223 pages
After the proclamation of Christianity as the state religion (301 AD) in Armenia the Bible was preached in churches orally. Since the invention of the Armenian alphabet (405 AD) by Mesrop Mashtots the Bible being translated in written form appeared to be at the centre of the attention of the Armenian historians and especially Movses Khorenatsi (the 5th century AD) in historical spiritual questions.
Movses Khorenatsi in his work “The History of Armenia” widely used citations from the Bible (Old and New Testaments) as was accepted in the early Middle Ages. At the same time he mentions “old histories” which he used for his work to give a full picture of ancient history of the nations which had not been mentioned in the Bible. The ideological basis of Movses Khorenatsi’s “The History of Armenia” constitutes the concept of the freedom of the Fatherland and Faith as a fundamental precondition of its national existence. Movses Khorenatsi exposed the pivot of the development of the history of Armenia, from ancient to early medieval times, determined by millennia-old national values.
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THE UNIVERSITY OF SANAHIN – 1050. A BRIEF HISTORY
"Lusakn" Publishing House, Yerevan, 2016, 160 pp.
The University of Sanahin (founded in 966 AD in the Sanahin monastery, 130 years earlier than the famous Oxford University) is one of the oldest educational institutions of the world, a great historical value that can be of honor and arouse pride. Several manuscripts about Sanahin have survived up to our days; extracts from the writings of Armenian historians such as Mattheos Urhayetsi, Kirakos. Gandzaketsi, Stepanos Taronetsi - Asoghik, Samuel Anetsi, Stepanos Orbelyan and others; as well as inscriptions on the walls of the church and adjacent buildings. Sanahin still stands like a brave hero; it announces to the world that Armenians have always created, educated and spread enlightenment.
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MINAS AVETISYAN (1928-1975)
Minas Avetisyan well known for the originality of his artistic language was always in friendly relationship with Martiros Sarian, the great painter of the 20th century whose sparkling colors reflect the idea of eternity. In the 1960s Minas became the symbol of the Armenian modern painting rebirth.
The sonorous universe of Minas' colors is penetrated by either the cheerfulness of his mountainous native land or emotions full of sadness, dramatic, even tragic of his life period. Minas painted about five hundred paintings and graphical works, decorated twelve opera performances and created great sized wall paintings of a total surface of five hundred square meters, which was considered to be something new in Armenian art. One of these splendid works, which escaped damages during the earthquake of 1988, was taken off from the wall and transferred to the hall of the Yerevan airport.
Seeing the works blossoming like spring by Minas in the Museum of Modern Art in Yerevan, French painter Jean Lurçat said: ...This master of the brush may compete with the best French painters''.
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YEREVAN IN A DREAM AND AWAKE BETWEEN TWO CENTURIES. Book I
Yerevan, 2014, “GASPRINT” PUBLISHING HOUSE, 509 pages
The book consists of two parts the titles of which in some sense reveal the essence of what it implies.
The first part, “Yerevan in a dream and awake”, represents the author’s memoires and essays - real and sometimes touching the illusory – about the Armenian capital city of the second half of the 20th c. and the beginning of the 21st c., about its famous and unknown, but unique personalities.
The second part, “Between two centuries”, represents the author’s literary-and-artistic contemplations about the mentioned period and the renowned figures of the Armenian culture.
The heroes of the book are time, that was immortalized by the renowned figures of the Armenian art and literature, and Yerevan the nostalgic love toward which the author would like to grow into an efficient and conscious love for the benefit of its future.
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GENOCIDE AND PATRICIDE: FROM RECOGNITION TO REPARATION
The book presents articles and interviews in different languages of the author (as published, as well as unpublished ones) on the issue of the Armenian Genocide highlighting the importance of the adoption of international legal framework in order to eliminate the consequences of Genocide and to define the concept of Patricide in international law, as well as to form the Pan-Armenian an State conception in this question.
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THE PROBLEM OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INFLUENTIAL ACTORS OF WORLD POLITICS AND TURKEY
«Tin» Publishing House, 2015. - 92 pages.
The monograph deals with the current state of the influential and leading countries' relations, namely those of Russia, the United States and the European Union with Turkey. The problem of Armenian Genocide is discussed within the context of present contradictions and interests in Russia-Turkey, the USA-Turkey and the EU-Turkey relations.
Several proposals and recommendations have been made both to the Foreign Ministry of Armenia and to the Armenian Lobby in Diaspora concerning the possibilities of making use of contradictions between the mentioned powers of the world politics and Turkey with the view of establishing an appropriate tendency in Moscow, Washington and Brussel to overcome the consequences of the Armenian Genocide.
The book is intented for those who are interested in the history of the Armenian Genocide and, in panicular, on the issues of claims, as well as for students and wide circle of readers.
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AZERBAIJAN’S HISTORICO‐GEOGRAPHICAL FALSIFICATIONS
A Cultural, Historical and Cartographic Study
Most of the territory of today’s artificially formed Republic of Azerbaijan until the 10th to 12th centuries in Graeco-Roman and Armenian sources was named Aluank/Albania (on the left bank of the Kura River), in Arabic - Arran or Aran. This has no relationship to the European country of Albania. In this work whenever the name Albania is mentioned, it refers to Caucasian Albania. In the mid 1918 the name “Azerbaijan” was given to an artificially formed “state” on the left bank of the Kura and in cis-Caspian region, in the eastern Transcaucasus, taking the name from the Iranian province of Azerbaijan (ancient Atropatene, according to Graeco-Roman sources-Atrpatakan in Armenian), in the north-west of Iran, to the south-east of Lake Urmia. This anomaly has given rise to a double meaning for the same name. In this book the name of the artificially formed state is referred to as the “Republic of Azerbaijan”, or in some cases simply “Azerbaijan”, while the Iranian province is called Iranian Azerbaijan. The territory of the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan includes the lands of historical Albania, which lay in the triangle formed by the course of the River Kura (the left bank), the western shores of the Caspian Sea and the mountains of the Great Caucasus Range. Here, in ancient times according to Strabo, lived 26 Albanian tribes. The western and southern neighbours of the Caucasian Albania at the time were the four provinces of Siunik, Utik, Artsakh and Paytakaran of Great Armenia on the right bank of the Kura.
In addition to detailing the officially-sponsored invention of modern Azerbaijani national identity, this book also looks at the various methodologies employed by Azerbaijani historians and geographers for their falsification of the documented pasts of Armenia and Iranian Azerbaijan.
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"Lusakn", Yerevan, 2016, 1087pp.
Armenian national liberation movement “gave birth” to a great number of heroes who created the glorious history of our nation with their struggle and selfless devotion. One of them is Hamazasp Srvandztiants, a great patriot who came to continue the work of the founders of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation Party. At the dramatic moments of the beginning of the 20th-century Armenian history, he harnessed himself to his nation’s struggle for survival without hesitation, with an infinite sense of responsibility. Heroism was typical to the human essence of Hamazasp. He lived a short, but prolific and turbulent life full of endless struggle for his Homeland, getting hardened as a noble military figure of immense will-power. Hamazasp's life was an endless chain of struggle, he sought to use his strength and energy in such a way that he could bring the most benefit to his Fatherland. Hamasazp’s unyielding will and the noblest image were created in this atmosphere. His life is closely connected with the most fatal events of our history.
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A WINDOW TO ETERNITY
Edit Print” Publishing House, 2013, 321 pages.
Book review by: Dolukhanyan A. G., Corresponding member of NAS RA
The new miscellanea, prepared and published by Gayane Harutyunyan, is dedicated to the memory of Zhora (Gevorg) Harutyunyan, a talented writer and playwright. There are many people who have written about both the theatrical works of Zhora Harutyunyan and the movies, filmed by his scenarios. It provides rich materials with its content for the future specialists in drama study and historians of literature.
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